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Kinetics of the SARS-CoV-2 antibody response and serological estimation of time since infection

Stéphane Pelleau 1, 2 Tom Woudenberg 1, 2 Jason Rosado 1, 2, 3 Françoise Donnadieu 1, 2 Laura Garcia 1, 2 Thomas Obadia 1, 2, 4 Soazic Gardais 2 Yasmine Elgharbawy 2 Aurelie Velay 5, 6 Maria Gonzalez 6 Jacques Yves Nizou 7 Nizar Khelil 7 Konstantinos Zannis 7 Charlotte Cockram 8 Sarah Hélène Merkling 9 Annalisa Meola 10 Solen Kerneis 11, 12 Benjamin Terrier 13, 14 Jerome de Seze 15 Delphine Planas 16 Olivier Schwartz 16 François Dejardin 17 Stéphane Petres 17 Cassandre von Platen 18 Sandrine Fernandes Pellerin 18 Laurence Arowas 19 Louise Perrin de Facci 19 Darragh Duffy 20 Clíona Ní Cheallaigh 21, 22 Jean Dunne 21, 22 Niall Conlon 21, 22 Liam Townsend 21, 22 Veasna Duong 23 Heidi Auerswald 23 Laurie Pinaud 24 Laura Tondeur 24 Marija Backovic 10 Bruno Hoen 25 Arnaud Fontanet 24, 26 Ivo Mueller 2, 27, 28 Samira Fafi-Kremer 5 Timothée Bruel 16, 29 Michael White 1, 2, *
* Corresponding author
Abstract : Background Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) induces a complex antibody response that varies by orders of magnitude between individuals and over time. Methods We developed a multiplex serological test for measuring antibodies to five SARS-CoV-2 antigens and the Spike proteins of seasonal coronaviruses. We measured antibody responses in cohorts of hospitalized patients and healthcare workers followed for up to eleven months after symptoms. A mathematical model of antibody kinetics was used to quantify the duration of antibody responses. Antibody response data were used to train algorithms for estimating time since infection. Results One year after symptoms, we estimate that 36% (95% range: 11%, 94%) of anti-Spike IgG remains, 31% (9%, 89%) anti-RBD IgG remains, and 7% (1%, 31%) anti-Nucleocapsid IgG remains. The multiplex assay classified previous infections into time intervals of 0–3 months, 3–6 months, and 6–12 months. This method was validated using data from a sero-prevalence survey in France, demonstrating that historical SARS-CoV-2 transmission can be reconstructed using samples from a single survey. Conclusions In addition to diagnosing previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, multiplex serological assays can estimate the time since infection which can be used to reconstruct past epidemics.
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Submitted on : Thursday, August 12, 2021 - 3:24:04 PM
Last modification on : Tuesday, August 17, 2021 - 6:07:13 PM

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Stéphane Pelleau, Tom Woudenberg, Jason Rosado, Françoise Donnadieu, Laura Garcia, et al.. Kinetics of the SARS-CoV-2 antibody response and serological estimation of time since infection. Journal of Infectious Diseases, Oxford University Press (OUP), 2021, pp.jiab375. ⟨10.1093/infdis/jiab375⟩. ⟨pasteur-03319587⟩

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