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De novo germline mutation in the dual specificity phosphatase 10 gene accelerates autoimmune diabetes

Abstract : Significance: The vast majority of autoimmune diseases are polygenic, and causal loci uncovered by genetic-mapping studies explain only a minority of the heritable contribution to trait variation. Multiple explanations for this missing heritability include rare meaningful variants, rare copy number variations or deletions, epistasis, epigenetics, disease heterogeneity, and rare or infrequent variants that segregate within individual families (even within monozygotic twins). Here we demonstrate that experimental models of spontaneous autoimmune diseases may be invaluable tools to map rare germline variants impacting disease susceptibility traits. We identified a variant of the dual-specificity phosphatase 10 encoding gene that accelerates disease in an autoimmune type 1 diabetes model, the nonobese diabetic mouse. Abstract: Insulin-dependent or type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a polygenic autoimmune disease. In humans, more than 60 loci carrying common variants that confer disease susceptibility have been identified by genome-wide association studies, with a low individual risk contribution for most variants excepting those of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region (40 to 50% of risk); hence the importance of missing heritability due in part to rare variants. Nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice recapitulate major features of the human disease including genetic aspects with a key role for the MHC haplotype and a series of Idd loci. Here we mapped in NOD mice rare variants arising from genetic drift and significantly impacting disease risk. To that aim we established by selective breeding two sublines of NOD mice from our inbred NOD/Nck colony exhibiting a significant difference in T1D incidence. Whole-genome sequencing of high (H)- and low (L)-incidence sublines (NOD/NckH and NOD/NckL) revealed a limited number of subline-specific variants. Treating age of diabetes onset as a quantitative trait in automated meiotic mapping (AMM), enhanced susceptibility in NOD/NckH mice was unambiguously attributed to a recessive missense mutation of Dusp10, which encodes a dual specificity phosphatase. The causative effect of the mutation was verified by targeting Dusp10 with CRISPR-Cas9 in NOD/NckL mice, a manipulation that significantly increased disease incidence. The Dusp10 mutation resulted in islet cell down-regulation of type I interferon signature genes, which may exert protective effects against autoimmune aggression. De novo mutations akin to rare human susceptibility variants can alter the T1D phenotype.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, June 29, 2022 - 11:42:08 PM
Last modification on : Friday, August 5, 2022 - 11:57:02 AM

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Anne-Perrine Foray, Sophie Candon, Sara Hildebrand, Cindy Marquet, Fabrice Valette, et al.. De novo germline mutation in the dual specificity phosphatase 10 gene accelerates autoimmune diabetes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, National Academy of Sciences, 2021, 118 (47), pp.e2112032118. ⟨10.1073/pnas.2112032118⟩. ⟨pasteur-03709542⟩

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