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Neonatal Listeriosis Presentation and Outcome: A Prospective Study of 189 Cases

Abstract : Background Listeriosis is caused by the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. It can present as a maternal–neonatal infection. We implemented a nationwide prospective cohort and analyzed the features of neonatal listeriosis. Methods We studied all neonates born alive from mothers with microbiologically proven maternal–neonatal listeriosis enrolled from November 2009 to December 2017. We analyzed presentation, neonatal outcome at discharge, and predictors of severe presentation and outcome. Results We studied 189 infants; 133 of 189 (70%) had abnormal clinical status at birth, including acute respiratory distress in 106 of 189 (56%). There were 132 of 189 (70%) infants who developed early-onset listeriosis and 12 of 189 (6%) who developed late-onset listeriosis; all presented with acute meningitis. There were 17 of 189 (9%) infants who had major adverse outcomes: 3%, (5 of 189) death; 6% (12 of 189), severe brain injury; and 2% (3 of 189), severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Fifteen of 17 infants were born <34 weeks of gestation (P < .0001 vs infants born ≥34 weeks of gestation). Maternal antimicrobial treatment ≥1 day before delivery was associated with a significant decrease in presentation severity for the infant, resulting in significantly fewer inotropic drugs, fluid resuscitation, and mechanical ventilation requirement (odds ratio, 0.23; 95% confidence interval, 0.09–0.51; P < .0001). Conclusions Antenatal maternal antimicrobial treatment is associated with reduced neonatal listeriosis severity, justifying the prescription of preemptive maternal antimicrobial therapy when maternal–fetal listeriosis is suspected. Neonatal outcome is better than reported earlier, and its major determinant is gestational age at birth. Clinical Trials Registration NCT01520597.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, June 15, 2022 - 4:00:47 PM
Last modification on : Thursday, October 20, 2022 - 3:10:07 PM

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Caroline Charlier, Elsa Kermorvant-Duchemin, Elodie Perrodeau, Alexandra Moura, Mylène M Maury, et al.. Neonatal Listeriosis Presentation and Outcome: A Prospective Study of 189 Cases. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 2022, 74 (1), pp.8-16. ⟨10.1093/cid/ciab337⟩. ⟨pasteur-03696113⟩

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