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Journal Articles Molecular Biology and Evolution Year : 2021

The Counteracting Effects of Demography on Functional Genomic Variation: The Roma Paradigm

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Abstract

Demographic history plays a major role in shaping the distribution of genomic variation. Yet the interaction between different demographic forces and their effects in the genomes is not fully resolved in human populations. Here, we focus on the Roma population, the largest transnational ethnic minority in Europe. They have a South Asian origin and their demographic history is characterized by recent dispersals, multiple founder events, and extensive gene flow from non-Roma groups. Through the analyses of new high-coverage whole exome sequences and genome-wide array data for 89 Iberian Roma individuals together with forward simulations, we show that founder effects have reduced their genetic diversity and proportion of rare variants, gene flow has counteracted the increase in mutational load, runs of homozygosity show ancestry-specific patterns of accumulation of deleterious homozygotes, and selection signals primarily derive from preadmixture adaptation in the Roma population sources. The present study shows how two demographic forces, bottlenecks and admixture, act in opposite directions and have long-term balancing effects on the Roma genomes. Understanding how demography and gene flow shape the genome of an admixed population provides an opportunity to elucidate how genomic variation is modeled in human populations.
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Dates and versions

pasteur-03199596 , version 1 (15-04-2021)

Licence

Attribution - NonCommercial - CC BY 4.0

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Neus Font-Porterias, Rocio Caro-Consuegra, Marcel Lucas-Sánchez, Marie Lopez, Aaron Giménez, et al.. The Counteracting Effects of Demography on Functional Genomic Variation: The Roma Paradigm. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 2021, pp.msab070. ⟨10.1093/molbev/msab070⟩. ⟨pasteur-03199596⟩
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