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Neuronal selectivity of botulinum neurotoxins

Bernard Poulain 1 Emmanuel Lemichez 2 Michel Popoff 2
2 Toxines bactériennes - Bacterial Toxins
Institut Pasteur [Paris], UPD7 - Université Paris Diderot - Paris 7, CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique : ERL6002
Abstract : Keywords: Botulinum neurotoxin Neuronal cell Sensory neuron Ganglioside Synaptic vesicle protein 2 Synaptotagmin. enteric nervous system A B S T R A C T Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are highly potent toxins responsible for a severe disease, called botulism. They are also efficient therapeutic tools with an increasing number of indications ranging from neuromuscular dysfunction to hypersecretion syndrome, pain release, depression as well as cosmetic application. BoNTs are known to mainly target the motor-neurons terminals and to induce flaccid paralysis. BoNTs recognize a specific double receptor on neuronal cells consisting of gangliosides and synaptic vesicle protein, SV2 or synaptotagmin. Using cultured neuronal cells, BoNTs have been established blocking the release of a wide variety of neuro-transmitters. However, BoNTs are more potent in motor-neurons than in the other neuronal cell types. In in vivo models, BoNT/A impairs the cholinergic neuronal transmission at the motor-neurons but also at neurons controlling secretions and smooth muscle neurons, and blocks several neuronal pathways including excitatory, inhibitory, and sensitive neurons. However, only a few reports investigated the neuronal selectivity of BoNTs in vivo. In the intestinal wall, BoNT/A and BoNT/B target mainly the cholinergic neurons and to a lower extent the other non-cholinergic neurons including serotonergic, glutamatergic, GABAergic, and VIP-neurons. The in vivo effects induced by BoNTs on the non-cholinergic neurons remain to be precisely investigated. We report here a literature review of the neuronal selectivity of BoNTs.
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Bernard Poulain, Emmanuel Lemichez, Michel Popoff. Neuronal selectivity of botulinum neurotoxins. Toxicon, Elsevier, 2020, 178, pp.20-32. ⟨10.1016/j.toxicon.2020.02.006⟩. ⟨pasteur-02491032⟩

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