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Composition des venins d’hyménoptères et de la salive des arthropodes hématophages

Abstract : Hymenoptera venoms contain many substances with toxic properties causing inflammation at sting location. Biogenic amines, enzymes and mast cell degranulating peptides are identified in Apidae and Vespidae venoms. In Formicidae, alkaloids are involved. These substances have also hemolytic, cytolytic and for some of them neurotoxic properties. Numerous allergens are identified especially in bee venom. Phospholipase A 2 (Api m 1) and hyaluronidase (Api m 2) are major allergens. Other allergens playing a major role in bee venom sensitization are mellitin (Api m 4), dipeptidylpeptidase (Api m 5) and the more recently described icarapin (Api m 10). In total, twelve bee venom allergens are registered in the international nomenclature. In Vespidae, major allergens are phospholipase A 1, hyaluronidase and the antigens 5. These allergens are more or less shared between Vespula, Polistes and Vespa species, which makes accurate diagnosis by means of serology particularly difficult. Ant venoms are less studied: essentially a phospholipase (Sol i 1) is described in the venom of Solenopsis species. The saliva of blood-sucking arthropods contains also many less well known components, except for mosquito where nine salivary allergens have been identified. All these allergens are often common to different species, explaining the high frequency of cross reactions observed in studies, as well in vivo as in vitro. These allergenic similarities may also explain cases of co-sensitization between hymenoptera and diptera..
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E Beaudouin, Pascal Poncet, F Lavaud. Composition des venins d’hyménoptères et de la salive des arthropodes hématophages. Revue francaise d'allergologie, Elsevier, 2022, 62 (1), pp.18 - 31. ⟨10.1016/j.reval.2021.08.002⟩. ⟨pasteur-03718507⟩



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