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Revisiting an IgG Fc Loss-of-Function Experiment: the Role of Complement in HIV Broadly Neutralizing Antibody b12 Activity

Abstract : The role of the complement system in HIV-1 immunity and pathogenesis is multifaceted, and an improved understanding of complement activities mediated by HIV-1-specific antibodies has the potential to inform and advance clinical development efforts. A seminal nonhuman primate challenge experiment suggested that complement was dispensable for the protective effect of the early broadly neutralizing antibody (bnAb) b12, but recent experiments have raised questions about the breadth of circumstances under which this conclusion may hold. Here, we reassess the original observation using Fc variants of IgG1 b12 that enhance complement activity and report that complement fixation on recombinant antigen, virions, and cells and complement-dependent viral and cellular lysis in vitro vary among bnAbs. Specifically, while the clinically significant V3 glycan-specific bnAb 10-1074 demonstrates activity, we found that b12 does not meaningfully activate the classical complement cascade. Consistent with avid engagement by C1q and its complex system of regulatory factors, these results suggest that complement-mediated antibody activities demonstrate a high degree of context dependence and motivate revisiting the role of complement in antibody-mediated prevention of HIV-1 infection by next-generation bnAbs in new translational studies in animal models.
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https://hal-pasteur.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-03696816
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Submitted on : Thursday, June 16, 2022 - 11:24:59 AM
Last modification on : Friday, June 17, 2022 - 3:42:33 AM

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Benjamin S. Goldberg, Chengzi I. Kaku, Jérémy Dufloo, Timothée Bruel, Olivier Schwartz, et al.. Revisiting an IgG Fc Loss-of-Function Experiment: the Role of Complement in HIV Broadly Neutralizing Antibody b12 Activity. mBio, 2021, 12 (5), pp.e01743-21. ⟨10.1128/mBio.01743-21⟩. ⟨pasteur-03696816⟩

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