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Severe relapse of SARS‐CoV‐2 infection in a kidney transplant recipient with negative nasopharyngeal SARS‐CoV‐2 RT‐PCR after rituximab

Abstract : Immunocompromised patients may experience prolonged viral shedding after their initial SARS-CoV-2 infection, however, symptomatic relapses after remission currently remain rare. We herein describe a severe COVID-19 relapse case of a kidney transplant recipient (KTR) following rituximab therapy, 3 months after a moderate COVID-19 infection, despite viral clearance after recovery of the first episode. During the clinical relapse, the diagnosis was established on a broncho-alveolar lavage specimen (BAL) by RT-PCR. The infectivity of the BAL sample was confirmed on a cell culture assay. Whole genome sequencing confirmed the presence of an identical stain (Clade 20A). However, it had an acquired G142D mutation and a larger deletion of 3-amino-acids at position 143-145. These mutations located within the N-terminal domain are suggested to play a role in viral entry. The diagnosis of a COVID-19 relapse should be considered in the setting of unexplained persistent fever and/or respiratory symptoms in KTRs (especially for those after rituximab therapy), even in patients with previous negative naso-pharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 PCR.
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https://hal-pasteur.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-03696766
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Submitted on : Thursday, June 16, 2022 - 11:06:34 AM
Last modification on : Saturday, June 25, 2022 - 3:44:20 AM

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Antoine Morel, Sandrine Imbeaud, Anne Scemla, Hélène Péré, Jacques Fourgeaud, et al.. Severe relapse of SARS‐CoV‐2 infection in a kidney transplant recipient with negative nasopharyngeal SARS‐CoV‐2 RT‐PCR after rituximab. American Journal of Transplantation, Wiley, 2022, ⟨10.1111/ajt.17000⟩. ⟨pasteur-03696766⟩

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