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COVID-19 outbreak in vaccinated patients from a haemodialysis unit: antibody titres as a marker of protection from infection

Abstract : Background Patients on maintenance haemodialysis (HD) have an increased risk of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and a reduced response to vaccines. Data are needed to identify immune correlates of protection in this population. Methods Following a COVID-19 outbreak among vaccinated patients in a HD unit, clinical data and serological response to BNT162b2 vaccine were retrospectively recorded. Results Among 53 patients present in the dialysis room, 14 were infected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) alpha variant (COVID_Pos) and 39 were not. Compared with uninfected patients, COVID_Pos patients more frequently had additional causes of immunosuppression (50% versus 21%; P = .046) and were more often scheduled on the Monday–Wednesday–Friday (MWF) shift (86% versus 39%; P = .002). Moreover, COVID_Pos had lower anti-spike (S) immunoglobulin G (IgG) titres than uninfected patients {median 24 BAU/mL [interquartile range (IQR) 3–1163] versus 435 [99–2555]; P = .001} and lower neutralization titres [median 108 (IQR 17–224) versus 2483 (481–43 908); P = .007]. Anti-S and neutralization antibody titres are correlated (r = 0.92, P < .001). In multivariable analysis, an MWF schedule {odds ratio [OR] 10.74 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.9–93.5], P = .014} and anti-S IgG titres 1 month before the outbreak [<205 BAU/mL: OR 0.046 (95% CI 0.002–0.29), P = .006] were independently associated with COVID-19 infection. None of the patients with anti-S IgG >284 BAU/mL got infected. Ten of 14 COVID_Pos patients were treated with casirivimab and imdevimab. No patient developed severe disease. Conclusions Anti-S IgG titre measured prior to exposure correlates to protection from SARS-CoV-2 infection in HD patients. BNT162b2 vaccination alone or in combination with monoclonal antibodies prevented severe COVID-19.
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https://hal-pasteur.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-03696758
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Submitted on : Thursday, June 16, 2022 - 11:01:58 AM
Last modification on : Thursday, October 20, 2022 - 3:10:07 PM

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Idris Boudhabhay, Alexandra Serris, Aude Servais, Delphine Planas, Aurélie Hummel, et al.. COVID-19 outbreak in vaccinated patients from a haemodialysis unit: antibody titres as a marker of protection from infection. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, 2022, pp.gfac016. ⟨10.1093/ndt/gfac016⟩. ⟨pasteur-03696758⟩

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