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Le nouveau vaccin antipoliomyélitique oral : un tournant décisif pour le programme d’éradication ?

Abstract : Launched in 1988, the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) aims to eradicate polioviruses, which are the etiologic agents of poliomyelitis. Coordinated by the World Health Organization, this program relies on two pillars: mass vaccination campaigns that target children and active surveillance of the virus circulation. The GPEI has led to the eradication of two out of three serotypes of wild polioviruses and to the containment of the last serotype in two countries. Two polio vaccines exist: the injectable vaccine and the oral one. Both induce an efficient protection against poliomyelitis, but only the oral vaccine is able to stop poliovirus transmission chains. Therefore, the oral vaccine is essential to contain polioviruses and, finally, to eradicate them. In some contexts where the vaccine coverage is not sufficient, the attenuated strains contained in the oral vaccine can circulate for months and recover a pathogenic phenotype through genetic drift. In order to prevent this phenomenon, a new vaccine strain has been developed through genetic engineering: it has been designed to be as immunogenic as the historical vaccine strain, but more genetically stable to prevent the loss of its attenuation determinants. After being evaluated in vitro and through clinical trials, the novel strain has been rolled out in several African countries and in Tajikistan in 2021.
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https://hal-pasteur.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-03498185
Contributor : Maël Bessaud Connect in order to contact the contributor
Submitted on : Monday, December 20, 2021 - 9:22:19 PM
Last modification on : Tuesday, January 4, 2022 - 6:26:40 AM

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Maël Bessaud. Le nouveau vaccin antipoliomyélitique oral : un tournant décisif pour le programme d’éradication ?. Médecine Tropicale et Santé Internationale, Société francophone de médecine tropicale et santé internationale, 2021, 1 (4), ⟨10.48327/mtsi.2021.191⟩. ⟨pasteur-03498185⟩

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