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A recombinant measles virus vaccine strongly reduces SHIV viremia and virus reservoir establishment in macaques

Abstract : Abstract Replicative vectors derived from live-attenuated measles virus (MV) carrying additional non-measles vaccine antigens have long demonstrated safety and immunogenicity in humans despite pre-existing immunity to measles. Here, we report the vaccination of cynomolgus macaques with MV replicative vectors expressing simian-human immunodeficiency virus Gag, Env, and Nef antigens (MV-SHIV Wt) either wild type or mutated in the immunosuppressive (IS) domains of Nef and Env antigens (MV-SHIV Mt). We found that the inactivation of Nef and Env IS domains by targeted mutations led to the induction of significantly enhanced post-prime cellular immune responses. After repeated challenges with low doses of SHIV-SF162p3, vaccinees were protected against high viremia, resulting in a 2-Log reduction in peak viremia, accelerated viral clearance, and a decrease -even complete protection for nearly half of the monkeys- in reservoir cell infection. This study demonstrates the potential of a replicative viral vector derived from the safe and widely used measles vaccine in the development of a future human vaccine against HIV-1.
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https://hal-pasteur.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-03421041
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Submitted on : Tuesday, November 9, 2021 - 3:09:01 PM
Last modification on : Monday, November 15, 2021 - 10:15:05 AM

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Distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

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Patrycja Nzounza, Grégoire Martin, Nathalie Dereuddre-Bosquet, Valérie Najburg, Leslie Gosse, et al.. A recombinant measles virus vaccine strongly reduces SHIV viremia and virus reservoir establishment in macaques. NPJ vaccines, Nature Research 2021, 6 (1), pp.123. ⟨10.1038/s41541-021-00385-6⟩. ⟨pasteur-03421041⟩

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