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Changes in the incidence of invasive disease due to Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria meningitidis during the COVID-19 pandemic in 26 countries and territories in the Invasive Respiratory Infection Surveillance Initiative: a prospective analysis of surveillance data

Angela Brueggemann 1, * Melissa Jansen van Rensburg 1 David Shaw 1 Noel Mccarthy 2 Keith Jolley 3 Martin Maiden 3 Mark van der Linden 4 Zahin Amin-Chowdhury 5 Désirée Bennett 6 Ray Borrow 7 Maria-Cristina Brandileone 8 Karen Broughton 5 Ruth Campbell 9 Bin Cao 10 Carlo Casanova 11 Eun Hwa Choi 12 Yiu Wai Chu 13 Stephen Clark 7 Heike Claus 14 Juliana Coelho 5 Mary Corcoran 15, 6 Simon Cottrell 16 Robert Cunney 15, 6 Tine Dalby 17 Heather Davies 18 Linda de Gouveia 19 Ala-Eddine Deghmane 20 Walter Demczuk 21 Stefanie Desmet 22, 23 Richard Drew 15, 6 Mignon Du Plessis 19 Helga Erlendsdottir 24 Norman Fry 5 Kurt Fuursted 25 Steve Gray 5 Birgitta Henriques-Normark 26, 27 Thomas Hale 1 Markus Hilty 11 Steen Hoffmann 25 Hilary Humphreys 6 Margaret Ip 28 Susanne Jacobsson 29 Jillian Johnston 9 Jana Kozakova 17 Karl Kristinsson 24 Pavla Krizova 17 Alicja Kuch 30 Shamez Ladhani 5 Thiên-Trí Lâm 14 Vera Lebedova 17 Laura Lindholm 31 David Litt 5 Irene Martin 21 Delphine Martiny 32, 33 Wesley Mattheus 34 Martha Mcelligott 6 Mary Meehan 6 Susan Meiring 19 Paula Mölling 29 Eva Morfeldt 35 Julie Morgan 18 Robert Mulhall 6 Carmen Muñoz-Almagro 36 David Murdoch 37 Joy Murphy 9 Martin Musilek 17 Alexandre Mzabi 38 Amaresh Perez-Argüello 36 Monique Perrin 38 Malorie Perry 16 Alba Redin 36 Richard Roberts 16 Maria Roberts 16 Assaf Rokney 39 Merav Ron 39 Kevin Scott 40 Carmen Sheppard 5 Lotta Siira 31 Anna Skoczyńska 30 Monica Sloan 9 Hans-Christian Slotved 25 Andrew Smith 40 Joon Young Song 41 Muhamed-Kheir Taha 20 Maija Toropainen 31 Dominic Tsang 13 Anni Vainio 31 Nina van Sorge 37 Emmanuelle Varon 42 Jiri Vlach 17 Ulrich Vogel 14 Sandra Vohrnova 17 Anne von Gottberg 19 Rosemeire Zanella 8 Fei Zhou 43
* Corresponding author
Résumé : Background: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria meningitidis, which are typically transmitted via respiratory droplets, are leading causes of invasive diseases, including bacteraemic pneumonia and meningitis, and of secondary infections subsequent to post-viral respiratory disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of invasive disease due to these pathogens during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: In this prospective analysis of surveillance data, laboratories in 26 countries and territories across six continents submitted data on cases of invasive disease due to S pneumoniae, H influenzae, and N meningitidis from Jan 1, 2018, to May, 31, 2020, as part of the Invasive Respiratory Infection Surveillance (IRIS) Initiative. Numbers of weekly cases in 2020 were compared with corresponding data for 2018 and 2019. Data for invasive disease due to Streptococcus agalactiae, a non-respiratory pathogen, were collected from nine laboratories for comparison. The stringency of COVID-19 containment measures was quantified using the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker. Changes in population movements were assessed using Google COVID-19 Community Mobility Reports. Interrupted time-series modelling quantified changes in the incidence of invasive disease due to S pneumoniae, H influenzae, and N meningitidis in 2020 relative to when containment measures were imposed. Findings: 27 laboratories from 26 countries and territories submitted data to the IRIS Initiative for S pneumoniae (62 837 total cases), 24 laboratories from 24 countries submitted data for H influenzae (7796 total cases), and 21 laboratories from 21 countries submitted data for N meningitidis (5877 total cases). All countries and territories had experienced a significant and sustained reduction in invasive diseases due to S pneumoniae, H influenzae, and N meningitidis in early 2020 (Jan 1 to May 31, 2020), coinciding with the introduction of COVID-19 containment measures in each country. By contrast, no significant changes in the incidence of invasive S agalactiae infections were observed. Similar trends were observed across most countries and territories despite differing stringency in COVID-19 control policies. The incidence of reported S pneumoniae infections decreased by 68% at 4 weeks (incidence rate ratio 0·32 [95% CI 0·27-0·37]) and 82% at 8 weeks (0·18 [0·14-0·23]) following the week in which significant changes in population movements were recorded. Interpretation: The introduction of COVID-19 containment policies and public information campaigns likely reduced transmission of S pneumoniae, H influenzae, and N meningitidis, leading to a significant reduction in life-threatening invasive diseases in many countries worldwide
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Submitted on : Tuesday, June 15, 2021 - 5:30:25 PM
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Angela Brueggemann, Melissa Jansen van Rensburg, David Shaw, Noel Mccarthy, Keith Jolley, et al.. Changes in the incidence of invasive disease due to Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria meningitidis during the COVID-19 pandemic in 26 countries and territories in the Invasive Respiratory Infection Surveillance Initiative: a prospective analysis of surveillance data. The Lancet Digital Health, Elsevier, 2021, 3 (6), pp.e360-e370. ⟨10.1016/S2589-7500(21)00077-7⟩. ⟨pasteur-03261492⟩

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