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Bacterial intracellularly active toxins: Membrane localisation of the active domain

Abstract : Numerous bacterial toxins exert their activity by inactivating or modulating a specific intracellular host target. For this purpose, these toxins have developed efficient strategies to overcome the different host cell defences including specific binding to cell surface, internalisation, passage through the endosome or plasma membrane, exploiting intracellular trafficking and addressing to intracellular targets. Several intracellularly active toxins deliver an active domain into the cytosol that interacts with a target localised to the inner face of the plasma membrane. Thus, the large clostridial glucosylating toxins (LCGTs) target Rho/Ras-GTPases, certain virulence factors of Gram negative bacteria, Rho-GTPases, while Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT) targets trimeric G-proteins. Others such as botulinum neurotoxins and tetanus neurotoxin have their substrate on synaptic vesicle membrane. LCGTs, PMT, and certain virulence factors from Vibrio sp. show a particular structure constituted of a four-helix bundle membrane (4HBM) protruding from the catalytic site that specifically binds to the membrane phospholipids and then trap the catalytic domain at the proximity of the membrane anchored substrate. Structural and functional analysis indicate that the 4HBM tip of the Clostridium sordellii lethal toxin (TcsL) from the LCGT family contain two loops forming a cavity that mediates the binding to phospholipids and more specifically to phosphatidylserine.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, June 15, 2021 - 4:54:11 PM
Last modification on : Tuesday, October 19, 2021 - 10:29:30 PM

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Carolina Varela-Chavez, Arnaud Blondel, Michel Popoff. Bacterial intracellularly active toxins: Membrane localisation of the active domain. Cellular Microbiology, Wiley, 2020, 22 (7), pp.e13213. ⟨10.1111/cmi.13213⟩. ⟨pasteur-03261443⟩

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