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Sélection génétique par les pandémies de peste

Abstract : Living organisms best fitted to survive and reproduce are the winners of the natural selection process. Infectious diseases are thought to exert a strong selection pressure on the immune system, thus contributing to eliminate deleterious genes and to positively select genetic variants providing a survival advantage. Because of the enormous death toll payed by mankind to historical plague pandemics, the highly pathogenic bacteria Yersinia pestis probably favored the selection of such genetic variants among survivors. Methods to evidence these effects have considerably evolved in the last decades with the onset of mass genome sequencing and exploding computation capacities, favoring the development of population genetics approaches such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS) over a priori candidate-gene approaches. In this review, early and recent studies and hypotheses on natural selection by plague are gathered and the related immune mechanisms described, when available. Several genes which may have been selected by plague are associated with susceptibility to inflammatory or autoimmune diseases, highlighting the impact of mutations affecting immunity-related genes. Finally, how effects of natural selection on the pathogen itself and its animal hosts mirrors those in man is proposed.
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https://hal-pasteur.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-03140260
Contributor : Christian E. Demeure <>
Submitted on : Friday, February 12, 2021 - 4:34:35 PM
Last modification on : Tuesday, June 15, 2021 - 2:14:03 PM
Long-term archiving on: : Friday, May 14, 2021 - 9:33:55 AM

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  • HAL Id : pasteur-03140260, version 1

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Mara Carloni, Javier Pizarro-Cerdá, Christian E. Demeure. Sélection génétique par les pandémies de peste. Doctorat. France. 2021. ⟨pasteur-03140260⟩

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