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A comparison of four serological assays for detecting anti–SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in human serum samples from different populations

Ludivine Grzelak 1, 2, 3 Sarah Temmam 4 Cyril Planchais 5 Caroline Demeret 6, 3 Laura Tondeur 7 Christèle Huon 4 Florence Guivel-Benhassine 1, 2 Isabelle Staropoli 1, 2 Maxime Chazal 8 Jeremy Dufloo 1, 2, 3 Delphine Planas 1, 2 Julian Buchrieser 1, 2 Maaran Michael Rajah 1, 2, 3 Remy Robinot 1, 2 Françoise Porrot 1, 2 Mélanie Albert 6, 3, 9 Kuang-Yu Chen 10 Bernadette Crescenzo-Chaigne 6, 3 Flora Donati 9, 6, 3 François Anna 11 Philippe Souque 12 Marion Gransagne 13 Jacques Bellalou 14 Mireille Nowakowski 14 Marija Backovic 15 Lila Bouadma 16, 17 Lucie Le Fevre 17 Quentin Le Hingrat 16, 17 Diane Descamps 16, 17 Annabelle Pourbaix 17 Cédric Laouénan 16, 17 Jade Ghosn 16, 17 Yazdan Yazdanpanah 16, 17 Camille Besombes 7 Nathalie Jolly 18 Sandrine Pellerin-Fernandes 18 Olivia Cheny 18 Marie-Noëlle Ungeheuer 18 Guillaume Mellon 19 Pascal Morel 20 Simon Rolland 21, 22 Felix Rey 15 Sylvie Behillil 6, 3, 9 Vincent Enouf 6, 3, 9 Audrey Lemaitre 23 Marie-Aude Créach 24, 25 Stéphane Pêtres 14 Nicolas Escriou 13 Pierre Charneau 11, 12 Arnaud Fontanet 7, 26, 27 Bruno Hoen 28 Timothée Bruel 1, 2 Marc Eloit 4, 29, * Hugo Mouquet 5 Olivier Schwartz 1, 2, * Sylvie van der Werf 6, 3, 9
* Corresponding author
10 Biologie des ARN et virus influenza - RNA Biology of Influenza Virus
Institut Pasteur [Paris], CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique : UMR3569
Abstract : It is of paramount importance to evaluate the prevalence of both asymptomatic and symptomatic cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection and their differing antibody response profiles. Here, we performed a pilot study of four serological assays to assess the amounts of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in serum samples obtained from 491 healthy individuals before the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, 51 individuals hospitalized with COVID-19, 209 suspected cases of COVID-19 with mild symptoms, and 200 healthy blood donors. We used two ELISA assays that recognized the full-length nucleoprotein (N) or trimeric spike (S) protein ectodomain of SARS-CoV-2. In addition, we developed the S-Flow assay that recognized the S protein expressed at the cell surface using flow cytometry, and the luciferase immunoprecipitation system (LIPS) assay that recognized diverse SARS-CoV-2 antigens including the S1 domain and the carboxyl-terminal domain of N by immunoprecipitation. We obtained similar results with the four serological assays. Differences in sensitivity were attributed to the technique and the antigen used. High anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody titers were associated with neutralization activity, which was assessed using infectious SARS-CoV-2 or lentiviral-S pseudotype virus. In hospitalized patients with COVID-19, seroconversion and virus neutralization occurred between 5 and 14 days after symptom onset, confirming previous studies. Seropositivity was detected in 32% of mildly symptomatic individuals within 15 days of symptom onset and in 3% of healthy blood donors. The four antibody assays that we used enabled a broad evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence and antibody profiling in different subpopulations within one region.
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Ludivine Grzelak, Sarah Temmam, Cyril Planchais, Caroline Demeret, Laura Tondeur, et al.. A comparison of four serological assays for detecting anti–SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in human serum samples from different populations. Science Translational Medicine, American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2020, 12 (559), pp.eabc3103. ⟨10.1126/scitranslmed.abc3103⟩. ⟨pasteur-03139185⟩

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