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Differential contribution of Anopheles coustani and Anopheles arabiensis to the transmission of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in two neighbouring villages of Madagascar

Abstract : Background: Malaria is still a heavy public health concern in Madagascar. Few studies combining parasitology and entomology have been conducted despite the need for accurate information to design effective vector control measures. In a Malagasy region of moderate to intense transmission of both Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax, parasitol-ogy and entomology have been combined to survey malaria transmission in two nearby villages. Methods: Community-based surveys were conducted in the villages of Ambohitromby and Miarinarivo at three time points (T1, T2 and T3) during a single malaria transmission season. Human malaria prevalence was determined by rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), microscopy and real-time PCR. Mosquitoes were collected by human landing catches and pyrethrum spray catches and the presence of Plasmodium sporozoites was assessed by TaqMan assay. Results: Malaria prevalence was not significantly different between villages, with an average of 8.0% by RDT, 4.8% by microscopy and 11.9% by PCR. This was mainly due to P. falciparum and to a lesser extent to P. vivax. However, there was a significantly higher prevalence rate as determined by PCR at T2 (χ 2 2 = 7.46, P = 0.025). Likewise, mosquitoes were significantly more abundant at T2 (χ 2 2 = 64.8, P < 0.001), especially in Ambohitromby. At T1 and T3 mosquito abundance was higher in Miarinarivo than in Ambohitromby (χ 2 2 = 14.92, P < 0.001). Of 1550 Anopheles mosquitoes tested, 28 (1.8%) were found carrying Plasmodium sporozoites. The entomological inoculation rate revealed that Anopheles coustani played a major contribution in malaria transmission in Miarinarivo, being responsible of 61.2
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Jessy Goupeyou-Youmsi, Tsiriniaina Rakotondranaivo, Nicolas Puchot, Ingrid Peterson, Romain Girod, et al.. Differential contribution of Anopheles coustani and Anopheles arabiensis to the transmission of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in two neighbouring villages of Madagascar. Parasites and Vectors, BioMed Central, 2020, 13 (1), pp.430. ⟨10.1186/s13071-020-04282-0⟩. ⟨pasteur-02928288⟩

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