G. M. Air, Influenza neuraminidase. Influenza Other Respir, Viruses, vol.6, pp.245-256, 2012.

S. Bajimaya, T. Frankl, T. Hayashi, and T. Takimoto, Cholesterol is required for stability and infectivity of influenza A and respiratory syncytial viruses, Virology, vol.510, pp.234-241, 2017.

N. J. Baker and S. S. Gandhi, Effect of Ca++ on the stability of influenza virus neuraminidase, Arch. Virol, vol.52, pp.7-18, 1976.

J. D. Brown, G. Goekjian, R. Poulson, S. Valeika, and D. E. Stallknecht, Avian influenza virus in water: infectivity is dependent on pH, salinity and temperature, Vet. Microbiol, vol.136, pp.20-26, 2009.

J. D. Brown, D. E. Swayne, R. J. Cooper, R. E. Burns, and D. E. Stallknecht, Persistence of H5 and H7 avian influenza viruses in water, Avian. Dis, vol.51, pp.285-289, 2007.

W. P. Burmeister, S. Cusack, and R. W. Ruigrok, Calcium is needed for the thermostability of influenza B virus neuraminidase, J. Gen. Virol, vol.75, pp.381-388, 1994.

L. Byrd-leotis, S. E. Galloway, E. Agbogu, and D. A. Steinhauer, Influenza hemagglutinin (HA) stem region mutations that stabilize or destabilize the structure of multiple HA subtypes, J. Virol, vol.89, pp.4504-4516, 2015.

P. J. Campbell, S. Danzy, C. S. Kyriakis, M. J. Deymier, A. C. Lowen et al., The M segment of the 2009 pandemic influenza virus confers increased neuraminidase activity, filamentous morphology, and efficient contact transmissibility to A/Puerto Rico/8/1934-based reassortant viruses, J. Virol, vol.88, pp.3802-3814, 2014.

C. M. Chu, Inactivation of haemagglutinin and infectivity of influenza and Newcastle disease viruses by heat and by formalin, J. Hyg, vol.46, pp.247-251, 1948.

A. Dublineau, C. Batéjat, A. Pinon, A. M. Burguière, I. Leclercq et al., Persistence of the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus in water and on non-porous surface, PLoS One, vol.6, p.28043, 2011.

Y. Fang, P. Ye, X. Wang, X. Xu, and W. Reisen, Real-time monitoring of flavivirus induced cytopathogenesis using cell electric impedance technology, J. Virol. Methods, vol.173, pp.251-258, 2011.

E. Fodor, L. Devenish, O. G. Engelhardt, P. Palese, G. G. Brownlee et al., Rescue of influenza A virus from recombinant DNA, J. Virol, vol.73, pp.9679-9682, 1999.

R. Hirose, T. Nakaya, Y. Naito, T. Daidoji, Y. Watanabe et al., Mechanism of human influenza virus RNA persistence and virion survival in feces: mucus protects virions from acid and digestive juices, J. Infect. Dis, vol.216, pp.105-109, 2017.

E. Hoffmann, G. Neumann, Y. Kawaoka, G. Hobom, and R. G. Webster, A DNA transfection system for generation of influenza A virus from eight plasmids, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A, vol.97, pp.6108-6113, 2000.

H. Hsu, J. K. Millet, D. A. Costello, G. R. Whittaker, and S. Daniel, Viral fusion efficacy of specific H3N2 influenza virus reassortant combinations at single-particle level, Sci. Rep, vol.6, p.35537, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02639428

A. C. Hurt, Y. C. Su, M. Aban, H. Peck, H. Lau et al., Evidence for the introduction, reassortment, and persistence of diverse influenza a viruses in Antarctica, J. Virol, vol.90, pp.9674-9682, 2016.

M. Imai, T. Watanabe, M. Hatta, S. C. Das, M. Ozawa et al., Experimental adaptation of an influenza H5 HA confers respiratory droplet transmission to a reassortant H5 HA/H1N1 virus in ferrets, Nature, vol.486, pp.420-428, 2012.

T. Ivanovic, J. L. Choi, S. P. Whelan, A. M. Van-oijen, and S. C. Harrison, Influenza-virus membrane fusion by cooperative fold-back of stochastically induced hemagglutinin intermediates, vol.2, p.333, 2013.

Y. Jiang, K. Yu, H. Zhang, P. Zhang, C. Li et al., Enhanced protective efficacy of H5 subtype avian influenza DNA vaccine with codon optimized HA gene in a pCAGGS plasmid vector, Antiviral Res, vol.75, pp.234-241, 2007.

S. P. Keeler, M. S. Dalton, A. M. Cressler, R. D. Berghaus, and D. E. Stallknecht, Abiotic factors affecting the persistence of avian influenza virus in surface waters of waterfowl habitats, Appl. Environ. Microbiol, vol.80, pp.2910-2917, 2014.

B. M. Krenn, A. Egorov, E. Romanovskaya-romanko, M. Wolschek, S. Nakowitsch et al., Single HA2 mutation increases the infectivity and immunogenicity of a live attenuated h5n1 intranasal influenza vaccine candidate lacking NS1, PLoS One, vol.6, p.18577, 2011.

A. S. Lang, A. Kelly, and J. A. Runstadler, Prevalence and diversity of avian influenza viruses in environmental reservoirs, J. Gen. Virol, vol.89, pp.509-519, 2008.

C. Lebarbenchon, C. J. Feare, F. Renaud, F. Thomas, and M. Gauthier-clerc, Persistence of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in natural ecosystems, Emerg. Infect. Dis, vol.16, pp.1057-1062, 2010.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02502572

C. Lebarbenchon, S. Sreevatsan, T. Lefèvre, M. Yang, M. A. Ramakrishnan et al., Reassortant influenza A viruses in wild duck populations: effects on viral shedding and persistence in water, Proc. R. Soc. B Biol. Sci, vol.279, pp.3967-3975, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02411035

J. Nazir, R. Haumacher, A. Ike, P. Stumpf, R. Böhm et al., , 2010.

, Long-term study on tenacity of avian influenza viruses in water (distilled water, normal saline, and surface water) at different temperatures, Avian. Dis, vol.54, pp.720-724

C. D. O'donnell, L. Vogel, Y. Matsuoka, H. Jin, and K. Subbarao, The matrix gene segment destabilizes the acid and thermal stability of the hemagglutinin of pandemic live attenuated influenza virus vaccines, J. Virol, vol.88, pp.12374-12384, 2014.

J. B. Plotkin and J. Dushoff, Codon bias and frequency-dependent selection on the hemagglutinin epitopes of influenza A virus, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A, vol.100, pp.7152-7157, 2003.

M. O. Pohl, T. O. Edinger, and S. Stertz, Prolidase is required for early trafficking events during influenza A virus entry, J. Virol, vol.88, pp.11271-11283, 2014.

R. L. Poulson, S. M. Tompkins, R. D. Berghaus, J. D. Brown, and D. E. Stallknecht, Environmental stability of swine and human pandemic influenza viruses in water under variable conditions of temperature, salinity, and pH, Appl. Environ. Microbiol, vol.82, pp.3721-3726, 2016.

M. L. Reed, O. A. Bridges, P. Seiler, J. Kim, H. Yen et al., The pH of activation of the hemagglutinin protein regulates H5N1 influenza virus pathogenicity and transmissibility in ducks, J. Virol, vol.84, pp.1527-1535, 2010.

B. Roche, J. M. Drake, J. Brown, D. E. Stallknecht, T. Bedford et al., Adaptive evolution and environmental durability jointly structure phylodynamic patterns in avian influenza viruses, PLoS Biol, vol.12, p.1001931, 2014.

M. Russier, G. Yang, J. E. Rehg, S. Wong, H. H. Mostafa et al., Molecular requirements for a pandemic influenza virus: an acidstable hemagglutinin protein, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A, vol.113, pp.1636-1641, 2016.

O. Sawoo, A. Dublineau, C. Batéjat, P. Zhou, J. Manuguerra et al., Cleavage of hemagglutinin-bearing lentiviral pseudotypes and their use in the study of influenza virus persistence, PLoS One, vol.9, p.106192, 2014.

M. Schelker, C. M. Mair, F. Jolmes, R. Welke, E. Klipp et al., Viral RNA degradation and diffusion act as a bottleneck for the influenza A virus infection efficiency, PLoS Comput. Biol, vol.12, p.1005075, 2016.

S. Shigematsu, A. Dublineau, O. Sawoo, C. Batéjat, T. Matsuyama et al., Influenza A virus survival in water is influenced by the origin species of the host cell, Influenza Other Respir. Viruses, vol.8, pp.123-130, 2014.

H. Sooryanarain and S. Elankumaran, Environmental role in influenza virus outbreaks, Annu. Rev. Anim. Biosci, vol.3, pp.347-373, 2015.

M. Souris, D. Gonzalez, W. Wiriyarat, K. Chumpolbanchorn, S. Khaklang et al., Potential role of fresh water apple snails on H5N1 influenza virus persistence and concentration in nature, Air Water Borne Dis, vol.4, p.119, 2015.

D. Stallknecht and J. D. Brown, Tenacity of avian influenza viruses, Rev. Sci. Tech, vol.28, pp.59-67, 2009.

D. E. Stallknecht, V. H. Goekjian, B. R. Wilcox, R. L. Poulson, and J. D. Brown, Avian influenza virus in aquatic habitats: what do we need to learn?, Avian Dis, vol.54, pp.461-465, 2010.

S. S. Strickler, A. V. Gribenko, A. V. Gribenko, T. R. Keiffer, J. Tomlinson et al., Protein stability and surface electrostatics: a charged relationship, Biochemistry, vol.45, pp.2761-2766, 2006.

M. Vittecoq, H. Gauduin, T. Oudart, O. Bertrand, B. Roche et al., Modeling the spread of avian influenza viruses in aquatic reservoirs: a novel hydrodynamic approach applied to the Rhône delta (southern France), Sci. Total Environ, vol.595, pp.787-800, 2017.

T. P. Weber and N. I. Stilianakis, Inactivation of influenza A viruses in the environment and modes of transmission: a critical review, J. Infect, vol.57, pp.361-373, 2008.

X. Xu, X. Zhu, R. A. Dwek, J. Stevens, and I. A. Wilson, Structural characterization of the 1918 influenza virus H1N1 neuraminidase, J. Virol, vol.82, pp.10493-10501, 2008.

G. Zhang, D. Shoham, D. Gilichinsky, S. Davydov, J. D. Castello et al., Evidence of influenza A Virus RNA in Siberian Lake Ice, J. Virol, vol.80, pp.12229-12235, 2006.

H. Zhang, Y. Li, J. Chen, Q. Chen, C. et al., Perpetuation of H5N1 and H9N2 avian influenza viruses in natural water bodies, J. Gen. Virol, vol.95, pp.1430-1435, 2014.