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, Horizontal lines depict median values. Two-sided nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test: ns, 845 nonsignificant and *P<0, p.5

, Supplemental Figure 1. Early treatment of HIV-1-infected patients preserves resting 848 memory B-cells in blood. Frequencies of mature naive B cells (MN, CD21+ CD27-), resting 849 memory B cells (RM, CD21+ CD27+), activated memory B cells (AM, CD21-CD27+), and 850 tissue-like memory B cells (TLM, CD21-CD27-) among CD19+ CD38low CD10-mature B 851 cells in the blood from early-treated patients (e-ART, blue squares) and late-treated patients, vol.852

, Supplemental Figure 2. mRNA factors important for the germinal center's functions are 855 higher in the gut of early-treated HIV-1-infected patients. (A) IL-6-, IL-27p28

, EBI-3-, and IL-12A mRNA expressions in rectal biopsies of HIV-1-infected patients, 857 quantified by qPCR. The histograms depict mean± SEM. The two-sided nonparametric Mann-858

, Whitney U test was used: ns, non significant

*. P&lt;0, 05 (B) AICDA mRNA transcripts in 859 rectal biopsies from the patients, quantified by qPCR. Histograms depict mean values ± SEM

. Kruskal-wallis, test: ns, non significant and **P<0, p.1

, Supplemental Figure 3. The frequency of gp140-reactive B cells is higher in the blood of 863 early-treated HIV-1-infected patients

, Frequencies of total gp140-reactive CD19+ cells in the blood and gut of e-ART and l-ART 865 patients. Two-sided nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test: *P<0.05