D. Iwanowsky, Über die Mosaikkrankheit der Tabakspflanze, Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg, vol.35, pp.67-70, 1892.

M. W. Beijerinck, Über ein Contagium vivum fluidum als Ursache der Fleckenkrankheit der Tabaksblätter, Verh. K. Ned. Akad. Wet. Afd. Natuurkd. Tweede Sect, vol.65, pp.1-22, 1898.

F. Loeffler and P. Frosch, Berichte der Kommission zur Erforschung der Maul-und Klauenseuche bei dem Institut für Infektionskrankheiten in Berlin. Centralblatt für Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde und Infektionskrankheiten Abt. I, vol.23, pp.371-391, 1898.

A. Lustig and A. J. Levine, One hundred years of virology, J. Virol, vol.66, pp.4629-4631, 1992.

R. Rott and S. Siddell, One hundred years of animal virology, J. Gen. Virol, vol.79, pp.2871-2874, 1998.

S. Duffy, L. A. Shackelton, and E. C. Holmes, Rates of evolutionary change in viruses: patterns and determinants, Nat. Rev. Genet, vol.9, pp.267-276, 2008.

E. C. Holmes, The Evolution and Emergence of RNA Viruses: Oxford Series in Ecology and Evolution, 2009.

R. Biek, O. G. Pybus, J. O. Lloyd-smith, and X. Didelot, Measurably evolving pathogens in the genomic era, Trends Ecol. Evol, vol.30, pp.306-313, 2015.

C. A. Suttle, Marine viruses -major players in the global ecosystem, Nat. Rev. Microbiol, vol.5, pp.801-812, 2007.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01663342

C. Güemes and A. G. , Viruses as winners in the game of life, Annu. Rev. Virol, vol.3, pp.197-214, 2016.

A. C. Gregory, Marine DNA viral macro-and microdiversity from pole to pole, Cell, vol.177, pp.1109-1123, 2019.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02387010

P. Lefeuvre, Evolution and ecology of plant viruses, Nat. Rev. Microbiol, vol.17, pp.632-644, 2019.

Y. Zhang, Y. Chen, W. Wang, X. Qin, and E. C. Holmes, Expanding the RNA virosphere by unbiased metagenomics, Annu. Rev. Virol, vol.6, pp.119-139, 2019.

M. Krupovic, V. V. Dolja, and E. V. Koonin, Origin of viruses: primordial replicators recruiting capsids from hosts, Nat. Rev. Microbiol, vol.17, pp.449-458, 2019.

M. J. Adams, 50 years of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses: progress and prospects, Arch. Virol, vol.162, pp.1441-1446, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-01977367

P. Wildy, Monographs in Virology, vol.5, 1971.

R. I. Francki, C. M. Fauquet, D. L. Knudson, and F. Brown, Classification and Nomenclature of Viruses: Fifth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, 1991.

P. Simmonds, Consensus statement: virus taxonomy in the age of metagenomics, Nat. Rev. Microbiol, vol.15, pp.161-168, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-01977366

J. Barylski, Analysis of spounaviruses as a case study for the overdue reclassification of tailed phages, Syst. Biol, vol.69, pp.110-123, 2020.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02362652

A. E. Gorbalenya, C. Lauber, S. Siddell, . Taxonomy, and . Viruses, Reference Module in Biomedical Sciences, 2019.

R. W. Goldbach, Molecular evolution of plant RNA viruses, Annu. Rev. Phytopathol, vol.24, pp.289-310, 1986.

J. H. Strauss and E. G. Strauss, Evolution of RNA viruses, Annu. Rev. Microbiol, vol.42, pp.657-683, 1988.

A. E. Gorbalenya, The palm subdomain-based active site is internally permuted in viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases of an ancient lineage

, J. Mol. Biol, vol.324, pp.47-62, 2002.

L. M. Iyer, L. Aravind, and E. V. Koonin, Common origin of four diverse families of large eukaryotic DNA viruses, J. Virol, vol.75, pp.11720-11734, 2001.

F. J. Rixon and M. F. Schmid, Structural similarities in DNA packaging and delivery apparatuses in Herpesvirus and dsDNA bacteriophages, Curr. Opin. Virol, vol.5, pp.105-110, 2014.

M. Krupovic and E. V. Koonin, Polintons: a hotbed of eukaryotic virus, transposon and plasmid evolution, Nat. Rev. Microbiol, vol.13, pp.105-115, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-01977391

D. Kazlauskas, A. Varsani, E. V. Koonin, and M. Krupovic, Multiple origins of prokaryotic and eukaryotic single-stranded DNA viruses from bacterial and archaeal plasmids, Nat. Commun, vol.10, p.3425, 2019.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02242067

J. Iranzo, M. Krupovic, and E. V. Koonon, The double-stranded DNA virosphere as a modular hierarchial network of gene sharing, vol.7, pp.978-994, 2016.

M. Allaire, M. M. Chernaia, B. A. Malcolm, and M. N. James, Picornaviral 3C cysteine proteinases have a fold similar to chymotrypsin-like serine proteinases, Nature, vol.369, pp.72-76, 1994.

H. S. Subramanya, L. E. Bird, J. A. Brannigan, and D. B. Wigley, Crystal structure of a DExx box DNA helicase, Nature, vol.384, pp.379-83, 1996.

J. Pan, V. N. Vakharia, and Y. J. Tao, The structure of a birnavirus polymerase reveals a distinct active site topology, Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, vol.104, pp.7385-7390, 2007.

D. Baltimore, Expression of animal virus genomes, Bacteriol. Rev, vol.35, pp.235-241, 1971.

R. C. Condit, Principles of Virology, Fields Virology, vol.1, pp.21-51, 2013.

A. E. Gorbalenya, Increasing the number of available ranks in virus taxonomy from five to ten and adopting the Baltimore classes as taxa at the basal rank, Arch. Virol, vol.163, pp.2933-2936, 2018.

M. H. Van-regenmortel, Logical puzzles and scientific controversies: the nature of species, viruses and living organisms, Syst. Appl. Microbiol, vol.33, pp.1-6, 2010.

A. E. Gorbalenya, M. Krupovic, S. G. Siddell, . Varsani, and J. Kuhn, Riboviria: a single taxon that comprises RNA viruses at the basal rank of virus taxonomy, 2018.

S. G. Siddell, Additional changes to taxonomy ratified in a special vote by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, 2018.

, Arch. Virol, vol.164, pp.943-946, 2019.

P. J. Walker, Changes to virus taxonomy and the International Code of Virus Classification and Nomenclature ratified by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, Arch. Virol, vol.164, pp.2417-2429, 2019.

J. Liu and A. Mushegian, Displacements of prohead protease genes in the late operons of double-stranded-DNA bacteriophages, J. Bacteriol, vol.186, pp.4369-4375, 2004.

X. Dai and Z. H. Zhou, Structure of the herpes simplex virus 1 capsid with associated tegument protein complexes, Science, vol.360, p.7298, 2018.

C. L. Dedeo, G. Cingolani, and C. M. Teschke, Portal protein: the orchestrator of capsid assembly for the dsDNA tailed bacteriophages and herpesviruses

, Annu. Rev. Virol, vol.6, pp.141-160, 2019.

Y. Bào, Implementation of objective PASC-derived taxon demarcation criteria for official classification of filoviruses, Viruses, vol.9, p.106, 2017.

Y. I. Wolf, Origins and evolution of the global RNA Virome, vol.9, pp.2329-2347, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-01977324

C. Lauber and A. E. Gorbalenya, Partitioning the genetic diversity of a virus family: approach and evaluation through a case study of picornaviruses

, J. Virol, vol.86, pp.3890-3904, 2012.

C. Lauber and A. E. Gorbalenya, Toward genetics-based virus taxonomy: comparative analysis of a genetics-based classification and the taxonomy of picornaviruses, J. Virol, vol.86, pp.3905-3915, 2012.

A. E. Gorbalenya, The species Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus: classifying 2019-nCoV and naming it SARS-CoV-2, Nat. Microbiol, vol.5, pp.536-544, 2020.

A. E. Gorbalenya, Increasing the number of ranks available in virus taxonomy, 2017.

J. H. Kuhn, Classify viruses -the gain is worth the pain, Nature, vol.566, pp.318-320, 2019.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-02043332

E. V. Koonin, Global organization and proposed megataxonomy of the virus world. Microbiol, Mol. Biol. Rev, vol.84, pp.61-80, 2020.

A. E. , was a Leiden University Fund (LUF) Professor. His work was supported by the EU Horizon 2020 EVAg 653316 project and the LUMC MoBiLe program. A.R.M. is a Program Director at the US National Science Foundation (NSF)

. Microbiomics,

. Glasgow-centre-for-virus, . Research, and U. K. Glasgow, Theoretical Biology and Bioinformatics

, 12 Invasive Insect Biocontrol and Behavior Laboratory, p.15

U. Ms, Summerland Research and Development Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 21 School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences