A. Fekkar, E. Dannaoui, I. Meyer, S. Imbert, J. Y. Brossas et al., Emergence of echinocandin-resistant Candida spp. in a hospital setting: a consequence of 10 years of increasing use of antifungal therapy?, Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.: Off. Publ. Eur. Soc. Clin. Microbiol, vol.33, issue.9, pp.1489-1496, 2014.

E. Matsumoto, L. Boyken, S. Tendolkar, J. Mcdanel, M. Castanheira et al., Candidemia surveillance in Iowa: emergence of echinocandin resistance, Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis, vol.79, issue.2, pp.205-208, 2014.

M. A. Pfaller, D. J. Diekema, D. Andes, M. C. Arendrup, S. D. Brown et al., Clinical breakpoints for the echinocandins and Candida revisited: integration of molecular, clinical, and microbiological data to arrive at species-specific interpretive criteria, Drug Resist, Updates: Rev. Comment. Antimicrob. Anticancer Chemother, vol.14, issue.3, pp.164-176, 2011.

M. Desnos-ollivier, S. Bretagne, D. Raoux, D. Hoinard, F. Dromer et al., Mutations in the fks1 gene in Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. krusei correlate with elevated caspofungin MICs uncovered in AM3 medium using the method of the European Committee on Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother, vol.52, issue.9, pp.3092-3098, 2008.

G. Garcia-effron, D. J. Chua, J. R. Tomada, J. Dipersio, D. S. Perlin et al., Novel FKS mutations associated with echinocandin resistance in Candida species, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother, vol.54, issue.5, pp.2225-2227, 2010.

G. Garcia-effron, D. P. Kontoyiannis, R. E. Lewis, and D. S. Perlin, Caspofungin-resistant Candida tropicalis strains causing breakthrough fungemia in patients at high risk for hematologic malignancies, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother, vol.52, issue.11, pp.4181-4183, 2008.

M. C. Arendrup, M. Cuenca-estrella, C. Lass-florl, and W. Hope, EUCAST technical note on the EUCAST definitive document EDef 7.2: method for the determination of broth dilution minimum inhibitory concentrations of antifungal agents for yeasts EDef 7.2 (EUCAST-AFST), Clin. Microbiol. Infect. : Off. Publ. Eur. Soc. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis, vol.18, issue.7, pp.246-247, 2012.

M. Desnos-ollivier, F. Dromer, and E. Dannaoui, Detection of caspofungin resistance in Candida spp. by Etest, J. Clin. Microbiol, vol.46, issue.7, pp.2389-2392, 2008.

S. Park, R. Kelly, J. N. Kahn, J. Robles, M. J. Hsu et al., Specific substitutions in the echinocandin target Fks1p account for reduced susceptibility of rare laboratory and clinical Candida sp. isolates, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother, vol.49, issue.8, pp.3264-3273, 2005.

M. Desnos-ollivier, S. Bretagne, D. Raoux, D. Hoinard, F. Dromer et al., European Committee on Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing, Mutations in the fks1 gene in Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. krusei correlate with elevated caspofungin MICs uncovered in AM3 medium using the method of the European Committee on Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother, vol.52, issue.9, pp.3092-3098, 2008.

S. Katiyar, M. Pfaller, and T. Edlind, Candida albicans and Candida glabrata clinical isolates exhibiting reduced echinocandin susceptibility, Antimicrob. Agents

M. Grosset, Medical Mycology Case Reports, vol.14, pp.20-23, 2016.

. Chemother, , vol.50, pp.2892-2894, 2006.

E. Blanchard, O. Lortholary, K. Boukris-sitbon, M. Desnos-ollivier, F. Dromer et al., Prior caspofungin exposure in patients with hematological malignancies is a risk factor for subsequent fungemia due to decreased susceptibility in Candida spp, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother, vol.55, issue.11, pp.5358-5361, 2011.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00818510

A. J. Zimbeck, N. Iqbal, and A. M. Ahlquist, FKS mutations and elevated echinocandin MIC values among Candida glabrata isolates from U.S. population-Based surveillance, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother, vol.54, pp.5042-5047, 2010.

A. Tavanti, A. D. Davidson, E. M. Johnson, M. C. Maiden, D. J. Shaw et al., Multilocus sequence typing for differentiation of strains of Candida tropicalis, J. Clin. Microbiol, vol.43, issue.11, pp.5593-5600, 2005.

S. M. Donnelly, D. J. Sullivan, D. B. Shanley, and D. C. Coleman, Microbiology, vol.145, pp.1871-1882, 1999.

M. Jolley, Scalable analysis of bacterial genome variation at the population level, BMC Bioinforma, vol.11, p.595, 2010.

E. Dannaoui, M. Desnos-ollivier, D. Garcia-hermoso, F. Grenouillet, S. Cassaing et al., Candida spp. with acquired echinocandin resistance, Emerg. Infect. Dis, vol.18, issue.1, pp.86-90, 2004.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00759177

M. Lackner, M. Tscherner, M. Schaller, K. Kuchler, C. Mair et al., Positions and numbers of FKS mutations in Candida albicans selectively influence in vitro and in vivo susceptibilities to echinocandin treatment, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother, vol.58, issue.7, pp.3626-3635, 2014.

D. S. Perlin, Resistance to echinocandin-class antifungal drugs, Drug Resist, Updates: Rev. Comment. Antimicrob. Anticancer Chemother, vol.10, issue.3, pp.121-130, 2007.

M. Grosset, Medical Mycology Case Reports, vol.14, pp.20-23, 2016.