D. A. Haake and P. N. Levett, Leptospirosis in Humans, pp.65-98, 2014.

S. Faine, . Leptospirosis, A. Balows, W. J. Hausler, M. Ohashi et al., Laboratory diagnosis of infectious diseases: principles and practice, vol.1, pp.344-52, 1988.

P. N. Levett and . Leptospirosis, Clin Microbiol Rev, vol.14, issue.2, p.88975, 2001.

H. Lecour, M. Miranda, C. Magro, A. Rocha, and V. Goncalves, Human leptospirosis-a review of 50 cases, Infection, vol.17, issue.1, pp.8-12, 1989.

M. T. De-faria, M. S. Calderwood, D. A. Athanazio, A. J. Mcbride, R. A. Hartskeerl et al., Carriage of Leptospira interrogans among domestic rats from an urban setting highly endemic for leptospirosis in Brazil, Acta Trop, vol.108, issue.1, pp.1-5, 2008.

J. Sarkar, A. Chopra, B. Katageri, H. Raj, and A. Goel, Leptospirosis: a re-emerging infection, Asian Pacific journal of tropical medicine, vol.5, issue.6, pp.500-502, 2012.

R. A. Hartskeerl, M. Collares-pereira, and E. Wa, Clinical microbiology and infection: the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, vol.17, pp.494-501, 2011.

V. K. Lim, Leptospirosis: a re-emerging infection. The Malaysian journal of pathology, vol.33, pp.1-5, 2011.

A. I. Ko, G. Reis, M. , R. Dourado, C. M. et al., Urban epidemic of severe leptospirosis in Brazil. Salvador Leptospirosis Study Group, Lancet, vol.354, issue.9181, pp.820-825, 1999.

R. F. Domingos, M. L. Vieira, E. C. Romero, A. P. Goncales, Z. M. De-morais et al., Features of two proteins of Leptospira interrogans with potential role in host-pathogen interactions. BMC microbiology, vol.12, p.50, 2012.

P. Central and P. , , p.3444417

V. Brinkmann, U. Reichard, C. Goosmann, B. Fauler, Y. Uhlemann et al., Neutrophil extracellular traps kill bacteria, Science, vol.303, issue.5663, pp.1532-1537, 2004.

C. F. Urban, U. Reichard, V. Brinkmann, and A. Zychlinsky, Neutrophil extracellular traps capture and kill Candida albicans yeast and hyphal forms, Cellular microbiology, vol.8, issue.4, pp.668-76, 2006.

V. Brinkmann and A. Zychlinsky, Beneficial suicide: why neutrophils die to make NETs, Nature reviews Microbiology, vol.5, issue.8, pp.577-82, 2007.

B. Mcdonald, R. Urrutia, B. G. Yipp, C. N. Jenne, and P. Kubes, Intravascular neutrophil extracellular traps capture bacteria from the bloodstream during sepsis, Cell host & microbe, vol.12, issue.3, pp.324-357, 2012.

A. Lambert, M. Picardeau, D. A. Haake, R. W. Sermswan, A. Srikram et al., FlaA proteins in Leptospira interrogans are essential for motility and virulence but are not required for formation of the flagellum sheath, Infect Immun, vol.80, issue.6, pp.2019-2044, 2012.

G. Pretre, M. J. Lapponi, M. V. Atzingen, M. Schattner, A. L. Nascimento et al., Characterization of LIC11207, a novel leptospiral protein that is recognized by human convalescent sera and prevents apoptosis of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, Microb Pathog, vol.56, pp.21-29, 2013.

M. Picardeau and A. Brenot, Saint Girons I. First evidence for gene replacement in Leptospira spp. Inactivation of L. biflexa flaB results in non-motile mutants deficient in endoflagella, Molecular microbiology, vol.40, issue.1, pp.189-99, 2001.

M. J. Lapponi, A. Carestia, V. I. Landoni, L. Rivadeneyra, J. Etulain et al., Regulation of neutrophil extracellular trap formation by anti-inflammatory drugs, J Pharmacol Exp Ther, vol.345, issue.3, pp.430-437, 2013.

M. F. Ferrer, E. Scharrig, L. Alberdi, M. Cedola, G. Pretre et al., Decay-accelerating factor 1 deficiency exacerbates leptospiral-induced murine chronic nephritis and renal fibrosis, PloS one, vol.9, issue.7, 2014.

M. D. Tate, L. J. Ioannidis, B. Croker, L. E. Brown, A. G. Brooks et al., The role of neutrophils during mild and severe influenza virus infections of mice, PloS one, vol.6, issue.3, 2011.

G. Abate, R. N. Mshana, and H. Miorner, Evaluation of a colorimetric assay based on 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) for rapid detection of rifampicin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The international journal of tuberculosis and lung disease: the official journal of the International Union against, Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, vol.2, issue.12, pp.1011-1017, 1998.

B. Dombrecht, J. Vanderleyden, and J. Michiels, Stable RK2-derived cloning vectors for the analysis of gene expression and gene function in gram-negative bacteria. Molecular plant-microbe interactions: MPMI, vol.14, 2001.

F. Wartha, K. Beiter, B. Albiger, J. Fernebro, A. Zychlinsky et al., Capsule and D-alanylated lipoteichoic acids protect Streptococcus pneumoniae against neutrophil extracellular traps, Cellular microbiology, vol.9, issue.5, 2007.

M. J. Kaplan and M. Radic, Neutrophil extracellular traps: double-edged swords of innate immunity, J Immunol, vol.189, issue.6, pp.2689-95, 2012.

P. Central and P. , , p.3439169

A. Carestia, L. Rivadeneyra, M. A. Romaniuk, C. Fondevila, S. Negrotto et al., Functional responses and molecular mechanisms involved in histone-mediated platelet activation. Thrombosis and haemostasis, vol.110, 2013.

F. Semeraro, C. T. Ammollo, J. H. Morrissey, G. L. Dale, P. Friese et al., Extracellular histones promote thrombin generation through platelet-dependent mechanisms: involvement of platelet TLR2 and TLR4, Blood, vol.118, issue.7, pp.1952-61, 2011.

M. Fanton-d'andon, N. Quellard, B. Fernandez, G. Ratet, S. Lacroix-lamande et al., Leptospira Interrogans induces fibrosis in the mouse kidney through Inos-dependent, TLR-and NLR-independent signaling pathways, PLoS Negl Trop Dis, vol.8, issue.1, p.3907306, 2014.

J. M. Daley, A. A. Thomay, M. D. Connolly, J. S. Reichner, and J. E. Albina, Use of Ly6G-specific monoclonal antibody to deplete neutrophils in mice, J Leukoc Biol, vol.83, issue.1, pp.64-70, 2008.

S. J. Webster, M. Daigneault, M. A. Bewley, J. A. Preston, H. M. Marriott et al., Distinct cell death programs in monocytes regulate innate responses following challenge with common causes of invasive bacterial disease, J Immunol, vol.185, issue.5, 2010.

S. Yousefi, J. A. Gold, N. Andina, J. J. Lee, A. M. Kelly et al., Catapult-like release of mitochondrial DNA by eosinophils contributes to antibacterial defense, Nature medicine, vol.14, issue.9, pp.949-53, 2008.

C. Schorn, C. Janko, M. Latzko, R. Chaurio, G. Schett et al., Monosodium urate crystals induce extracellular DNA traps in neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils but not in mononuclear cells. Frontiers in immunology, vol.3, 2012.

P. Central and P. , , p.3432456

M. Von-kockritz-blickwede, O. Goldmann, P. Thulin, K. Heinemann, A. Norrby-teglund et al., Phagocytosis-independent antimicrobial activity of mast cells by means of extracellular trap formation, Blood, vol.111, issue.6, pp.3070-80, 2008.

G. Ratet, F. J. Veyrier, M. Fanton-d'andon, X. Kammerscheit, M. A. Nicola et al., Live imaging of bioluminescent leptospira interrogans in mice reveals renal colonization as a stealth escape from the blood defenses and antibiotics, PLoS Negl Trop Dis, vol.8, issue.12, 2014.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-01415707

N. Branzk, A. Lubojemska, S. E. Hardison, Q. Wang, M. G. Gutierrez et al., Neutrophils sense microbe size and selectively release neutrophil extracellular traps in response to large pathogens, Nature immunology, vol.15, issue.11, pp.1017-1042, 2014.

P. Central and P. , , p.4236687

C. Menten-dedoyart, C. Faccinetto, M. Golovchenko, I. Dupiereux, P. B. Van-lerberghe et al., Neutrophil extracellular traps entrap and kill Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto spirochetes and are not affected by Ixodes ricinus tick saliva, J Immunol, vol.189, issue.11, pp.5393-401, 2012.

T. W. Halverson, M. Wilton, K. K. Poon, B. Petri, and S. Lewenza, DNA is an antimicrobial component of neutrophil extracellular traps, PLoS pathogens, vol.11, issue.1, p.4295883, 2015.

K. Beiter, F. Wartha, B. Albiger, S. Normark, A. Zychlinsky et al., An endonuclease allows Streptococcus pneumoniae to escape from neutrophil extracellular traps, Current biology: CB, vol.16, issue.4, pp.401-408, 2006.

C. Morita, R. Sumioka, M. Nakata, N. Okahashi, S. Wada et al., Cell wall-anchored nuclease of Streptococcus sanguinis contributes to escape from neutrophil extracellular trap-mediated bacteriocidal activity, PloS one, vol.9, issue.8, 2014.

J. T. Buchanan, A. J. Simpson, R. K. Aziz, G. Y. Liu, S. A. Kristian et al., DNase expression allows the pathogen group A Streptococcus to escape killing in neutrophil extracellular traps, Current biology: CB, vol.16, issue.4, pp.396-400, 2006.

V. Thammavongsa, D. M. Missiakas, and O. Schneewind, Staphylococcus aureus degrades neutrophil extracellular traps to promote immune cell death, Science, vol.342, issue.6160, p.4026193, 2013.

A. L. Nascimento, A. I. Ko, E. A. Martins, C. B. Monteiro-vitorello, P. L. Ho et al., Comparative genomics of two Leptospira interrogans serovars reveals novel insights into physiology and pathogenesis, J Bacteriol, vol.186, issue.7, p.374407, 2004.

R. L. Zuerner, Host Response to Leptospira Infection, pp.223-50, 2014.

C. A. Ganoza, M. A. Matthias, M. Saito, M. Cespedes, E. Gotuzzo et al., Asymptomatic renal colonization of humans in the peruvian Amazon by Leptospira, PLoS Negl Trop Dis, vol.4, issue.2, p.2826405, 2010.

A. Hakkim, B. G. Furnrohr, K. Amann, B. Laube, U. A. Abed et al., Impairment of neutrophil extracellular trap degradation is associated with lupus nephritis, Epub 2010/05/05, vol.107, pp.9813-9821, 2010.

M. Leendertse, R. J. Willems, I. A. Giebelen, J. J. Roelofs, M. J. Bonten et al., Neutrophils are essential for rapid clearance of Enterococcus faecium in mice, Infect Immun, vol.77, issue.1, pp.485-91, 2009.

J. Mestas and C. C. Hughes, Of mice and not men: differences between mouse and human immunology, J Immunol, vol.172, issue.5, pp.2731-2739, 2004.

J. B. Da-silva, . Ce, A. E. Covarrubias, A. T. Ching, V. G. Mattaraia et al., Induction of TNF-alfa and CXCL-2 mRNAs in different organs of mice infected with pathogenic Leptospira, Microb Pathog, vol.52, issue.4, pp.206-222, 2012.

C. Keller, R. Hoffmann, R. Lang, S. Brandau, C. Hermann et al., Genetically determined susceptibility to tuberculosis in mice causally involves accelerated and enhanced recruitment of granulocytes, Infect Immun, vol.74, issue.7, pp.4295-309, 2006.

P. Central and P. ,