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Imaging of human neurolisteriosis: a prospective study of 71 cases

Abstract : Background: Neurolisteriosis ranks among the most severe neurological infections. Its radiological features have not been thoroughly studied. We describe here the neuroradiological features of neurolisteriosis and assess their prognostic value. Methods: Patients with microbiologically proven neurolisteriosis were enrolled from November 2009 to October 2013 in MONALISA study. Magnetic resonance and computed tomography images were studied by 2 independent neuroradiologists. Predictors of 3-month mortality were determined using logistic regression. Results: Seventy-one patients were included; 42 were men (59%). Mean age was 64 years. Sixty patients (85%) reported signs of encephalitis, with clinical brainstem involvement in 16 (23%). Images were abnormal in 87% of cases (62/71). Main neuroradiological images were meningeal enhancement (25/71, 35%), abscess(es), or nodular image(s) evocative of abscess (10/71, 14%), hemorrhages (11/71, 15%), contrast-enhancing ventricles, or hydrocephalus (7/71, 10%). White-matter images (42/71, 59%), dilated Virchow-Robin spaces (22/71, 31%), and cerebral atrophy were also reported (34/71, 48%). Brainstem involvement (meningeal enhancement, abscess) was reported in only 7/71 cases (10%). Three-month survival was lower in patients with hydrocephalus or contrast-enhancing ventricles (1/7 [14%] than without [47/64, 73%], P = .005) and in patients with parenchymal images (abscess[es], nodule[s]\, or white matter images; 25/46 [54%] vs 23/25 without [92%], P = .004). Parenchymal images were associated with lower 3-month survival in the multivariable model (odds ratio 5.60, 95% confidence interval [1.42-29.6], P = .02). Conclusions: Neurolisteriosis presents as a combination of neuroradiological images, none being specific. Radiological signs of rhombencephalitis are uncommon, whereas, unexpectedly, hemorrhagic images are frequent. The negative prognostic value of parenchymal neuroradiological images was evidenced Clinical Trials Registration: NCT01520597.
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Caroline Charlier, Sylvain Poirée, Christophe Delavaud, Gaby Khoury, Clémence Richaud, et al.. Imaging of human neurolisteriosis: a prospective study of 71 cases. Clinical Infectious Diseases, Oxford University Press (OUP), 2018, 67 (9), pp.1419-1426. ⟨10.1093/cid/ciy449⟩. ⟨pasteur-02320235⟩

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