Z. N. Adelman, C. D. Blair, J. O. Carlson, B. J. Beaty, and K. E. Olson, Sindbis virus-induced silencing of dengue viruses in mosquitoes, Insect Mol Biol, vol.10, pp.265-273, 2001.

Z. N. Adelman, I. Sanchez-vargas, E. A. Travanty, and J. O. Carlson,

B. J. Beaty, C. D. Blair, and K. E. Olson, , 2002.

, J Virol, vol.76, pp.12925-12933

H. Agaisse, U. M. Petersen, M. Boutros, B. Mathey-prevot, and N. Perrimon, Signaling role of hemocytes in Drosophila, 2003.

, JAK/STAT-dependent response to septic injury, Dev Cell, vol.5, pp.441-450

M. N. Alder, S. Dames, J. Gaudet, and S. E. Mango, , 2003.

R. Anandalakshmi, G. J. Pruss, X. Ge, R. Marathe, A. C. Mallory et al., A viral suppressor of gene silencing in plants, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol.95, pp.13079-13084, 1998.

A. A. Aravin, G. J. Hannon, and J. Brennecke, The Piwi, 2007.

A. A. Aravin, M. Lagos-quintana, A. Yalcin, M. Zavolan, and D. Marks,

B. Snyder, T. Gaasterland, J. Meyer, and T. Tuschl, The endogenous small RNA pathways in Drosophila, PLoS One, vol.4, p.5866, 2003.

E. Bier, Drosophila, the golden bug, emerges as a tool for human genetics, Nat Rev Genet, vol.6, pp.9-23, 2005.

A. Billecocq, M. Vazeille-falcoz, F. Rodhain, and M. Bouloy, not NSs non-structural protein sequences, J Gen Virol, vol.81, pp.2161-2166, 2000.

D. Boden, O. Pusch, F. Lee, L. Tucker, and B. Ramratnam, , 2003.

, J Virol, vol.77, pp.11531-11535

H. G. Boman, I. Nilsson, and B. Rasmuson, Inducible antibacterial defence system in Drosophila, Nature, vol.237, pp.232-235, 1972.

D. E. Brackney, J. E. Beane, and G. D. Ebel, RNAi targeting of West Nile virus in mosquito midguts promotes virus diversification, 2009.

, PLoS Pathog, vol.5, 1000502.

D. E. Brackney, J. C. Scott, F. Sagawa, J. E. Woodward, N. A. Miller et al., C6/36 Aedes albopictus cells have a dysfunctional antiviral RNA interference response, PLoS Negl Trop Dis, vol.4, p.856, 2010.

J. Brennecke, A. A. Aravin, A. Stark, M. Dus, M. Kellis et al., Discrete small RNA, 2007.

W. J. Chung, K. Okamura, R. Martin, and E. C. Lai, , 2008.

, Endogenous RNA interference provides a somatic defense against Drosophila transposons, Curr Biol, vol.18, pp.795-802

C. M. Cirimotich, J. C. Scott, A. T. Phillips, B. J. Geiss, and K. E. Olson, Suppression of RNA interference increases alphavirus replication and virus-associated mortality in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, BMC Microbiol, vol.9, p.49, 2009.

A. Costa, E. Jan, P. Sarnow, and D. Schneider, The Imd pathway is involved in antiviral immune responses in Drosophila, PLoS One, vol.4, p.7436, 2009.

D. L. Cox-foster, S. Conlan, E. C. Holmes, G. Palacios, J. D. Evans et al.,

V. Martinson, D. Vanengelsdorp, A. L. Kalkstein, A. Drysdale, J. Hui et al., A metagenomic survey of microbes in honey bee colony collapse disorder, Science, vol.318, pp.283-287, 2007.

S. Crochu, S. Cook, H. Attoui, R. N. Charrel, R. De-chesse et al., Sequences of flavivirus-related RNA viruses persist in DNA form integrated in the genome of Aedes spp. mosquitoes, J Gen Virol, vol.85, 1971.

B. R. Cullen, Five questions about viruses and microRNAs, 2010.

, PLoS Pathog, vol.6, 1000787.

A. T. Das, T. R. Brummelkamp, E. M. Westerhout, M. Vink, M. Madiredjo et al., Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 escapes from RNA interferencemediated inhibition, J Virol, vol.78, pp.2601-2605, 2004.

S. Deddouche, N. Matt, A. Budd, S. Mueller, C. Kemp et al., The DExD/H-box helicase Dicer-2 mediates the induction of antiviral activity in drosophila, Nat Immunol, vol.9, pp.1425-1432, 2008.

A. M. Denli, B. B. Tops, R. H. Plasterk, R. F. Ketting, and G. J. Hannon, Processing of primary microRNAs by the Microprocessor complex, Nature, vol.432, pp.231-235, 2004.

E. Domingo, V. Martin, C. Perales, A. Grande-perez, and -. Garcia,

J. Arriaza and A. Arias, Viruses as quasispecies: biological implications, Curr Top Microbiol Immunol, vol.299, pp.51-82, 2006.

C. Dostert, E. Jouanguy, P. Irving, L. Troxler, D. Galiana-arnoux et al., The Jak-STAT signaling pathway is required but not sufficient for the antiviral response of drosophila, Nat Immunol, vol.6, pp.946-953, 2005.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00094350

A. Eulalio, E. Huntzinger, and E. Izaurralde, Getting to the root of miRNA-mediated gene silencing, Cell, vol.132, pp.9-14, 2008.

D. Fagegaltier, A. L. Bouge, B. Berry, E. Poisot, and O. Sismeiro,

J. Y. Coppee, L. Theodore, O. Voinnet, and C. Antoniewski, , 2009.

, J Virol, vol.70, pp.2132-2137

D. Galiana-arnoux, C. Dostert, A. Schneemann, J. A. Hoffmann, and J. L. Imler, Essential function in vivo for Dicer-2 in host defense against RNA viruses in drosophila, Nat Immunol, vol.7, pp.590-597, 2006.

M. B. Geuking, J. Weber, M. Dewannieux, E. Gorelik, T. Heidmann et al., , 2009.

, Recombination of retrotransposon and exogenous RNA virus results in nonretroviral cDNA integration, Science, vol.323, pp.393-396

M. Ghildiyal, H. Seitz, M. D. Horwich, C. Li, T. Du et al., , 2008.

, Endogenous siRNAs derived from transposons and mRNAs in Drosophila somatic cells, Science, vol.320, pp.1077-1081

M. Ghildiyal, J. Xu, H. Seitz, Z. Weng, and P. D. Zamore, , 2010.

, Sorting of Drosophila small silencing RNAs partitions microRNA* strands into the RNA interference pathway, RNA, vol.16, pp.43-56

L. Gitlin, J. K. Stone, and R. Andino, Poliovirus escape from RNA interference: short interfering RNA-target recognition and implications for therapeutic approaches, J Virol, vol.79, pp.1027-1035, 2005.
DOI : 10.1128/jvi.79.2.1027-1035.2005

URL : https://jvi.asm.org/content/79/2/1027.full.pdf

M. Gottar, V. Gobert, A. A. Matskevich, J. M. Reichhart, C. Wang et al., , 2006.

, Dual detection of fungal infections in Drosophila via recognition of glucans and sensing of virulence factors, Cell, vol.127, pp.1425-1437

S. M. Hammond, S. Boettcher, A. A. Caudy, and R. Kobayashi,

G. J. Hannon, Argonaute2, a link between genetic and biochemical analyses of RNAi, Science, vol.293, pp.1146-1150, 2001.

J. Han, Y. Lee, K. H. Yeom, Y. K. Kim, H. Jin et al., The Drosha-DGCR8 complex in primary microRNA processing, Genes Dev, vol.18, pp.3016-3027, 2004.

L. M. Hedges, J. C. Brownlie, S. L. O'neill, and K. N. Johnson, Wolbachia and virus protection in insects, Science, vol.322, p.702, 2008.

L. M. Hedges and K. N. Johnson, Induction of host defence responses by Drosophila C virus, J Gen Virol, vol.89, pp.1497-1501, 2008.

M. Horie, T. Honda, Y. Suzuki, Y. Kobayashi, T. Daito et al., Endogenous non-retroviral RNA virus elements in mammalian genomes, Nature, vol.463, pp.84-87, 2010.

S. Houwing, L. M. Kamminga, E. Berezikov, and D. Cronembold,

A. Girard, H. Van-den-elst, D. V. Filippov, H. Blaser, E. Raz et al., A role for Piwi and piRNAs in germ cell maintenance and transposon silencing in Zebrafish, Cell, vol.129, pp.69-82, 2007.

S. Iwasaki, T. Kawamata, and Y. Tomari, Drosophila argonaute1 and argonaute2 employ distinct mechanisms for translational repression, Mol Cell, vol.34, pp.58-67, 2009.

C. A. Janeway and . Jr, Approaching the asymptote? Evolution and revolution in immunology, Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol, vol.54, 1989.

, Pt, vol.1, pp.1-13

C. A. Janeway and . Jr, The immune system evolved to discriminate infectious nonself from noninfectious self, Immunol Today, vol.13, pp.11-16, 1992.

B. John, A. J. Enright, A. Aravin, T. Tuschl, C. Sander et al., Human MicroRNA targets, PLoS Biol, vol.2, p.363, 2004.

K. D. Kasschau and J. C. Carrington, A counterdefensive strategy of plant viruses: suppression of posttranscriptional gene silencing, Cell, vol.95, pp.461-470, 1998.

K. M. Keene, B. D. Foy, I. Sanchez-vargas, B. J. Beaty, and C. Blair,

D. Olson and K. E. , RNA interference acts as a natural antiviral response to O'nyong-nyong virus (Alphavirus; Togaviridae) infection of Anopheles gambiae, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol.101, pp.17240-17245, 2004.

C. C. Khoo, J. Piper, I. Sanchez-vargas, K. E. Olson, and A. W. Franz, The RNA interference pathway affects midgut infectionand escape barriers for Sindbis virus in Aedes aegypti, BMC Microbiol, vol.10, p.130, 2010.

P. Lavie, J. Fresnaye, and C. Vago, L'action de la virose à noyaux denses sur les larves de Galleria mellonella dans les ruches, 1965.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00890223

, Ann. Abeille, vol.8, pp.321-323

B. P. Lazzaro, Natural selection on the Drosophila antimicrobial immune system, Curr Opin Microbiol, vol.11, pp.284-289, 2008.

Y. Lee, C. Ahn, J. Han, H. Choi, J. Kim et al., The nuclear RNase III Drosha initiates microRNA processing, Nature, vol.425, pp.415-419, 2003.

Y. S. Lee, K. Nakahara, J. W. Pham, K. Kim, Z. He et al., , 2004.

, Dicer-2 in the siRNA/miRNA silencing pathways, Cell, vol.117, pp.69-81

B. Lemaitre, The road to Toll, Nat Rev Immunol, vol.4, pp.521-527, 2004.

B. Lemaitre and J. Hoffmann, The host defense of Drosophila melanogaster, Annu Rev Immunol, vol.25, pp.697-743, 2007.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00167467

B. Lemaitre, E. Kromer-metzger, L. Michaut, E. Nicolas, M. Meister et al., A recessive mutation, immune deficiency (imd), defines two distinct control pathways in the Drosophila host defense, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol.92, pp.9465-9469, 1995.

B. Lemaitre, M. Meister, S. Govind, P. Georgel, R. Steward et al., Functional analysis and regulation of nuclear import of dorsal during the immune response in Drosophila, EMBO J, vol.14, pp.536-545, 1995.

B. Lemaitre, E. Nicolas, L. Michaut, J. M. Reichhart, and J. A. Hoffmann, , 1996.

B. Lemaitre, J. M. Reichhart, and J. A. Hoffmann, Drosophila host defense: differential induction of antimicrobial peptide genes after infection by various classes of microorganisms, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol.94, pp.14614-14619, 1997.

F. Leulier, C. Parquet, S. Pili-floury, J. H. Ryu, M. Caroff et al., The Drosophila immune system detects bacteria through specific peptidoglycan recognition, Nat Immunol, vol.4, pp.478-484, 2003.

F. Li and S. W. Ding, Virus counterdefense: diverse strategies for evading the RNA-silencing immunity, Annu Rev Microbiol, vol.60, pp.503-531, 2006.

H. Li, W. X. Li, and S. W. Ding, Induction and suppression of RNA silencing by an animal virus, Science, vol.296, pp.1319-1321, 2002.

H. W. Li, A. P. Lucy, H. S. Guo, W. X. Li, L. H. Ji et al., , 1999.

, EMBO J, vol.18, pp.2683-2691

S. C. Li, C. K. Shiau, and W. C. Lin, Vir-Mir db: prediction of viral microRNA candidate hairpins, Nucleic Acids Res, vol.36, pp.184-189, 2008.

Y. Li, E. Y. Chan, J. Li, C. Ni, X. Peng et al., MicroRNA expression and virulence in pandemic influenza virus-infected mice, J Virol, vol.84, pp.3023-3032, 2010.

C. Lipardi and B. M. Paterson, Identification of an RNAdependent RNA polymerase in Drosophila involved in RNAi and transposon suppression, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol.106, pp.15645-15650, 2009.

J. Liu, M. A. Carmell, F. V. Rivas, C. G. Marsden, J. M. Thomson et al., Argonaute2 is the catalytic engine of mammalian RNAi, Science, vol.305, pp.1437-1441, 2004.

Q. Liu, T. A. Rand, S. Kalidas, F. Du, H. E. Kim et al.,

X. Wang, R2D2, a bridge between the initiation and effector steps of the Drosophila RNAi pathway, Science, vol.301, pp.1921-1925, 2003.

X. Liu, F. Jiang, S. Kalidas, D. Smith, and Q. Liu, Dicer-2 and R2D2 coordinately bind siRNA to promote assembly of the siRISC complexes, RNA, vol.12, pp.1514-1520, 2006.

Y. Liu, X. Ye, F. Jiang, C. Liang, D. Chen et al.,

N. V. Grishin and Q. Liu, C3PO, an endoribonuclease that promotes RNAi by facilitating RISC activation, Science, vol.325, pp.750-753, 2009.

R. Lu, A. Folimonov, M. Shintaku, W. X. Li, B. W. Falk et al., Three distinct suppressors of RNA silencing encoded by a 20-kb viral RNA genome, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol.101, pp.15742-15747, 2004.

R. Lu, M. Maduro, F. Li, H. W. Li, G. Broitman-maduro et al., Animal virus replication and RNAi-mediated antiviral silencing in Caenorhabditis elegans, Nature, vol.436, pp.1040-1043, 2005.

E. V. Makeyev and D. H. Bamford, Cellular RNA-dependent RNA polymerase involved in posttranscriptional gene silencing has two distinct activity modes, Mol Cell, vol.10, pp.1417-1427, 2002.

E. Maori, N. Paldi, S. Shafir, H. Kalev, E. Tsur et al., IAPV, a bee-affecting virus associated with Colony Collapse Disorder can be silenced by dsRNA ingestion, Insect Mol Biol, vol.18, pp.55-60, 2009.

E. Maori, E. Tanne, and I. Sela, Reciprocal sequence exchange between non-retro viruses and hosts leading to the appearance of new host phenotypes, Virology, vol.362, pp.342-349, 2007.

J. T. Marques, K. Kim, P. H. Wu, T. M. Alleyne, N. Jafari et al., Loqs and R2D2 act sequentially in the siRNA pathway in Drosophila, Nat Struct Mol Biol, vol.17, pp.24-30, 2010.

C. Matranga, Y. Tomari, C. Shin, D. P. Bartel, and P. D. Zamore, Passenger-strand cleavage facilitates assembly of siRNA into Ago2-containing RNAi enzyme complexes, Cell, vol.123, pp.607-620, 2005.

P. Matzinger, Tolerance, danger, and the extended family, 1994.

, Annu Rev Immunol, vol.12, pp.991-1045

P. Matzinger, Friendly and dangerous signals: is the tissue in control, Nat Immunol, vol.8, pp.11-13, 2007.

P. S. Mellor, Replication of arboviruses in insect vectors, J Comp Pathol, vol.123, pp.231-247, 2000.

D. J. Miller and P. Ahlquist, , 2002.

D. J. Miller, M. D. Schwartz, and P. Ahlquist, Flock house virus RNA replicates on outer mitochondrial membranes in Drosophila cells, J Virol, vol.75, pp.11664-11676, 2001.

D. J. Miller, M. D. Schwartz, B. T. Dye, and P. Ahlquist, , 2003.

, Engineered retargeting of viral RNA replication complexes to an alternative intracellular membrane, J Virol, vol.77, pp.12193-12202

T. Miyoshi, A. Takeuchi, H. Siomi, and M. C. Siomi, A direct role for Hsp90 in pre-RISC formation in Drosophila, Nat Struct Mol Biol, vol.17, pp.1024-1026, 2010.

T. H. Morgan, Sex Limited Inheritance in Drosophila, Science, vol.32, pp.120-122, 1910.

S. Mueller, V. Gausson, N. Vodovar, S. Deddouche, L. Troxler et al., RNAi-mediated immunity provides strong protection against the negative-strand RNA vesicular stomatitis virus in Drosophila, 2010.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00530555

, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol.107, pp.19390-19395

A. Nayak, B. Berry, M. Tassetto, M. Kunitomi, A. Acevedo et al., , 2010.

, Cricket paralysis virus antagonizes Argonaute 2 to modulate antiviral defense in Drosophila, Nat Struct Mol Biol, vol.17, pp.547-554

D. J. Obbard, F. M. Jiggins, D. L. Halligan, and T. J. Little, , 2006.

, Natural selection drives extremely rapid evolution in antiviral RNAi genes, Curr Biol, vol.16, pp.580-585

D. Olivieri, M. M. Sykora, R. Sachidanandam, and K. Mechtler,

J. Brennecke, An in vivo RNAi assay identifies major genetic and cellular requirements for primary piRNA biogenesis in Drosophila, EMBO J, vol.29, pp.3301-3317, 2010.

K. E. Olson, S. Higgs, P. J. Gaines, A. M. Powers, B. S. Davis et al., , 1996.

J. Pak and A. Fire, Distinct populations of primary and secondary effectors during RNAi in C. elegans, Science, vol.315, pp.241-244, 2007.

P. Parameswaran, E. Sklan, C. Wilkins, T. Burgon, M. A. Samuel et al.,

T. Doukas, S. Paranjape, C. Polacek, F. B. Santos, R. Jalili et al., , 2010.

, Six RNA viruses and forty-one hosts: viral small RNAs and modulation of small RNA repertoires in vertebrate and invertebrate systems, PLoS Pathog, vol.6, 1000764.

A. Patel, M. K. Fondrk, O. Kaftanoglu, C. Emore, G. Hunt et al., The making of a queen, 2007.

S. Pfeffer, A. Sewer, M. Lagos-quintana, R. Sheridan, and C. Sander,

F. A. Grasser, L. F. Van-dyk, C. K. Ho, S. Shuman, and M. Chien,

J. J. Russo, J. Ju, G. Randall, B. D. Lindenbach, C. M. Rice et al., , 2005.

, Identification of microRNAs of the herpesvirus family, Nat Methods, vol.2, pp.269-276

T. A. Rand, S. Petersen, F. Du, and X. Wang, Argonaute2 cleaves the anti-guide strand of siRNA during RISC activation, Cell, vol.123, pp.621-629, 2005.

F. Ratcliff, B. D. Harrison, and D. C. Baulcombe, A similarity between viral defense and gene silencing in plants, Science, vol.276, pp.1558-1560, 1997.

F. L. Rock, G. Hardiman, J. C. Timans, R. A. Kastelein, and J. F. Bazan, A family of human receptors structurally related to Drosophila Toll, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol.95, pp.588-593, 1998.

J. Y. Roignant, C. Carre, B. Mugat, D. Szymczak, J. A. Lepesant et al., Absence of transitive and systemic pathways allows cell-specific and isoform-specific RNAi in Drosophila, RNA, vol.9, pp.299-308, 2003.

H. Rouha, C. Thurner, and C. W. Mandl, Functional microRNA generated from a cytoplasmic RNA virus, Nucleic Acids Res, 2010.
DOI : 10.1093/nar/gkq681

URL : https://academic.oup.com/nar/article-pdf/38/22/8328/18784208/gkq681.pdf

L. R. Sabin, R. Zhou, J. J. Gruber, N. Lukinova, S. Bambina et al., Ars2 regulates both miRNA-and siRNA-dependent silencing and suppresses RNA virus infection in Drosophila, Cell, vol.138, pp.340-351, 2009.

M. C. Saleh, M. Tassetto, R. P. Van-rij, B. Goic, V. Gausson et al., , 2009.

, Antiviral immunity in Drosophila requires systemic RNA interference spread, Nature, vol.458, pp.346-350

M. C. Saleh, R. P. Van-rij, A. Hekele, A. Gillis, E. Foley et al., The endocytic pathway mediates cell entry of dsRNA to induce RNAi silencing, Nat Cell Biol, vol.8, pp.793-802, 2006.

I. Sanchez-vargas, J. C. Scott, B. K. Poole-smith, A. W. Franz, V. Barbosa-solomieu et al., Dengue virus type 2 infections of Aedes aegypti are modulated by the mosquito's RNA interference pathway, PLoS Pathog, vol.5, p.1000299, 2009.

R. Sanjuan, M. R. Nebot, N. Chirico, L. M. Mansky, and R. Belshaw, Viral mutation rates, J Virol, vol.84, pp.9733-9748, 2010.

D. H. Schott, D. K. Cureton, S. P. Whelan, and C. P. Hunter, , 2005.

, An antiviral role for the RNA interference machinery in Caenorhabditis elegans, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol.102, pp.18420-18424

D. S. Schwarz, G. Hutvagner, T. Du, Z. Xu, N. Aronin et al., Asymmetry in the assembly of the RNAi enzyme complex, Cell, vol.115, pp.199-208, 2003.

J. C. Scott, D. E. Brackney, C. L. Campbell, V. Bondu-hawkins, B. Hjelle et al., , 2010.

, Comparison of dengue virus type 2-specific small RNAs from RNA interference-competent and -incompetent mosquito cells, PLoS Negl Trop Dis, vol.4, p.848

O. M. Sessions, N. J. Barrows, J. A. Souza-neto, T. J. Robinson, C. L. Hershey et al., , 2009.

, Discovery of insect and human dengue virus host factors, Nature, vol.458, pp.1047-1050

T. Sijen, J. Fleenor, F. Simmer, K. L. Thijssen, S. Parrish et al., On the role of RNA amplification in dsRNA-triggered gene silencing, Cell, vol.107, pp.465-476, 2001.

D. Silhavy, A. Molnar, A. Lucioli, G. Szittya, C. Hornyik et al., A viral protein suppresses RNA silencing and binds silencing-generated, 21-to 25-nucleotide double-stranded RNAs, EMBO J, vol.21, pp.3070-3080, 2002.

J. Singh, C. P. Singh, A. Bhavani, and J. Nagaraju, , 2010.

, Discovering microRNAs from Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrosis virus, Virology

A. Smardon, J. M. Spoerke, S. C. Stacey, M. E. Klein, N. Mackin et al., EGO-1 is related to RNA-directed RNA polymerase and functions in germ-line development and RNA interference in C. elegans, Curr Biol, vol.10, pp.169-178, 2000.

J. A. Souza-neto, S. Sim, and G. Dimopoulos, An evolutionary conserved function of the JAK-STAT pathway in antidengue defense, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol.106, pp.17841-17846, 2009.

V. Specchia, C. Benna, G. M. Mazzotta, A. Piccin, and M. A. Zordan,

R. Costa and M. P. Bozzetti, , vol.178, pp.1271-1282, 2008.

O. H. Tam, A. A. Aravin, P. Stein, A. Girard, E. P. Murchison et al.,

M. Hannon and G. J. , Pseudogene-derived small interfering interference in insects: a genome-wide survey for RNAi genes in Tribolium, Genome Biol, vol.9, p.10, 2008.

E. Tsitsiou and M. A. Lindsay, microRNAs and the immune response, Curr Opin Pharmacol, vol.9, pp.514-520, 2009.

C. T. Turner, M. W. Davy, R. M. Macdiarmid, K. M. Plummer, N. P. Birch et al., RNA interference in the light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) induced by double-stranded RNA feeding, Insect Mol Biol, vol.15, pp.383-391, 2006.

P. Tzou, E. De-gregorio, and B. Lemaitre, How Drosophila combats microbial infection: a model to study innate immunity and host-pathogen interactions, Curr Opin Microbiol, vol.5, pp.102-110, 2002.

P. Tzou, S. Ohresser, D. Ferrandon, M. Capovilla, and J. Reichhart,

M. Lemaitre, B. Hoffmann, J. A. Imler, and J. L. , Tissuespecific inducible expression of antimicrobial peptide genes in Drosophila surface epithelia, Immunity, vol.13, pp.737-748, 2000.

J. L. Umbach and B. R. Cullen, The role of RNAi and microRNAs in animal virus replication and antiviral immunity, Genes Dev, vol.23, pp.1151-1164, 2009.

V. V. Vagin, A. Sigova, C. Li, H. Seitz, V. Gvozdev et al., A distinct small RNA pathway silences selfish genetic elements in the germline, Science, vol.313, pp.320-324, 2006.

F. E. Vaistij, L. Jones, and D. C. Baulcombe, Spreading of RNA targeting and DNA methylation in RNA silencing requires transcription of the target gene and a putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, Plant Cell, vol.14, pp.857-867, 2002.

R. P. Van-rij, M. C. Saleh, B. Berry, C. Foo, A. Houk et al., The RNA silencing endonuclease Argonaute 2 mediates specific antiviral immunity in Drosophila melanogaster, Genes Dev, vol.20, pp.2985-2995, 2006.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-01954329

O. Voinnet, Non-cell autonomous RNA silencing, FEBS Lett, vol.579, pp.5858-5871, 2005.

O. Voinnet, P. Vain, S. Angell, and D. C. Baulcombe, , 1998.

X. B. Wang, Q. Wu, T. Ito, F. Cillo, W. X. Li et al., RNAi-mediated viral immunity requires amplification of virus-derived siRNAs in Arabidopsis thaliana, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol.107, pp.484-489, 2010.

X. H. Wang, R. Aliyari, W. X. Li, H. W. Li, K. Kim et al.,

P. Atkinson and S. W. Ding, RNA interference directs innate immunity against viruses in adult Drosophila, Science, vol.312, pp.452-454, 2006.

T. Watanabe, Y. Totoki, A. Toyoda, M. Kaneda, S. Kuramochimiyagawa et al., Endogenous siRNAs from naturally formed dsRNAs regulate transcripts in mouse oocytes, Nature, vol.453, pp.539-543, 2008.

S. Whyard, A. D. Singh, and S. Wong, Ingested doublestranded RNAs can act as species-specific insecticides, Insect Biochem Mol Biol, vol.39, pp.824-832, 2009.

C. Wilkins, R. Dishongh, S. C. Moore, M. A. Whitt, M. Chow et al., RNA interference is an antiviral defence mechanism in Caenorhabditis elegans, Nature, vol.436, pp.1044-1047, 2005.

J. A. Wilson and C. D. Richardson, Hepatitis C virus replicons escape RNA interference induced by a short interfering RNA directed against the NS5b coding region, J Virol, vol.79, pp.7050-7058, 2005.

W. M. Winston, C. Molodowitch, and C. P. Hunter, Systemic RNAi in C. elegans requires the putative transmembrane protein SID, 2002.

, Science, vol.295, pp.2456-2459

W. M. Winston, M. Sutherlin, A. J. Wright, E. H. Feinberg, and C. P. Hunter, Caenorhabditis elegans SID-2 is required for environmental RNA interference, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol.104, pp.10565-10570, 2007.

Q. Wu, Y. Luo, R. Lu, N. Lau, E. C. Lai et al., Virus discovery by deep sequencing and assembly of virusderived small silencing RNAs, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol.107, pp.1606-1611, 2010.

Z. Xi, J. L. Ramirez, and G. Dimopoulos, The Aedes aegypti toll pathway controls dengue virus infection, PLoS Pathog, vol.4, 2008.

Z. Xie, B. Fan, C. Chen, and Z. Chen, An important role of an inducible RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in plant antiviral defense, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol.98, pp.6516-6521, 2001.

C. Xiong, R. Levis, P. Shen, S. Schlesinger, and C. M. Rice,

H. V. Huang, Sindbis virus: an efficient, broad host range vector for gene expression in animal cells, Science, vol.243, pp.1188-1191, 1989.

W. Xu and Z. Han, Cloning and phylogenetic analysis of sid-1-like genes from aphids, J Insect Sci, vol.8, pp.1-6, 2008.

A. Zaidman-remy, M. Herve, M. Poidevin, S. Pili-floury, M. S. Kim et al., The Drosophila amidase PGRP-LB modulates the immune response to bacterial infection, Immunity, vol.24, pp.463-473, 2006.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00168073

R. A. Zambon, V. N. Vakharia, and L. P. Wu, , 2006.

G. V. Amdam, Z. L. Simoes, K. R. Guidugli, K. Norberg, and S. W. Omholt, Disruption of vitellogenin gene function in adult honeybees by intra-abdominal injection of double-stranded RNA, BMC Biotechnol, vol.3, p.1, 2003.

R. N. Araujo, I. T. Campos, A. S. Tanaka, A. Santos, N. F. Gontijo et al., Brasiliensin: A novel intestinal thrombin inhibitor from Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) with an important role in blood intake, Int J Parasitol, vol.37, pp.1351-1358, 2007.

R. N. Araujo, A. Santos, F. S. Pinto, N. F. Gontijo, M. J. Lehane et al., RNA interference of the salivary gland nitrophorin 2 in the triatomine bug Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) by dsRNA ingestion or injection, Insect Biochem Mol Biol, vol.36, pp.683-693, 2006.

L. C. Bartholomay, J. F. Fuchs, L. L. Cheng, E. T. Beck, J. Vizioli et al., Reassessing the role of defensin in the innate immune response of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti, Insect Mol Biol, vol.13, pp.125-132, 2004.

R. Bettencourt, O. Terenius, and I. Faye, Hemolin gene silencing by ds-RNA injected into Cecropia pupae is lethal to next generation embryos, Insect Mol Biol, vol.11, pp.267-271, 2002.

S. Blandin, L. F. Moita, T. Kocher, M. Wilm, F. C. Kafatos et al., Reverse genetics in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae: targeted disruption of the Defensin gene, EMBO Rep, vol.3, pp.852-856, 2002.

G. Bucher, J. Scholten, and M. Klingler, Parental RNAi in Tribolium (Coleoptera), Curr Biol, vol.12, pp.85-86, 2002.

S. L. Chen, S. M. Dai, K. H. Lu, and C. Chang, Female-specific doublesex dsRNA interrupts yolk protein gene expression and reproductive ability in oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), Insect Biochem Mol Biol, vol.38, pp.155-165, 2008.

Y. Dong and M. Friedrich, Nymphal RNAi: systemic RNAi mediated gene knockdown in juvenile grasshopper, BMC Biotechnol, vol.5, p.25, 2005.

S. Dzitoyeva, N. Dimitrijevic, and H. Manev, Intra-abdominal injection of double-stranded RNA into anesthetized adult Drosophila triggers RNA interference in the central nervous system, Mol Psychiatry, vol.6, pp.665-670, 2001.

I. Eleftherianos, P. J. Millichap, R. H. Ffrench-constant, and S. E. Reynolds, RNAi suppression of recognition protein mediated immune responses in the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta causes increased susceptibility to the insect pathogen Photorhabdus, Dev Comp Immunol, vol.30, pp.1099-1107, 2006.

M. Ghanim, S. Kontsedalov, and H. Czosnek, Tissue-specific gene silencing by RNA interference in the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), Insect Biochem Mol Biol, vol.37, pp.732-738, 2007.

Z. B. He, Y. Q. Cao, Y. P. Yin, Z. K. Wang, B. Chen et al., Role of hunchback in segment patterning of Locusta migratoria manilensis revealed by parental RNAi, Dev Growth Differ, vol.48, pp.439-445, 2006.

L. C. Infanger, T. A. Rocheleau, L. C. Bartholomay, J. K. Johnson, J. Fuchs et al., The role of phenylalanine hydroxylase in melanotic encapsulation of filarial worms in two species of mosquitoes, Insect Biochem Mol Biol, vol.34, pp.1329-1338, 2004.

S. Jaubert-possamai, G. Le-trionnaire, J. Bonhomme, G. K. Christophides, C. Rispe et al., Gene knockdown by RNAi in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, BMC Biotechnol, vol.7, p.63, 2007.

M. J. Lehane, W. Gibson, and S. M. Lehane, Differential expression of fat body genes in Glossina morsitans morsitans following infection with Trypanosoma brucei brucei, Int J Parasitol, vol.38, pp.93-101, 2008.

S. Liu, Z. Ding, C. Zhang, B. Yang, and Z. Liu, Gene knockdown by intro-thoracic injection of double-stranded RNA in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, Insect Biochem Mol Biol, vol.40, pp.666-671, 2010.

P. Lungchukiet, B. C. Donly, J. Zhang, S. S. Tobe, and W. G. Bendena, Molecular cloning and characterization of an allatostatin-like receptor in the cockroach Diploptera punctata, Peptides, vol.29, pp.276-285, 2008.

J. A. Lynch, A. E. Brent, D. S. Leaf, M. A. Pultz, and C. Desplan, Localized maternal orthodenticle patterns anterior and posterior in the long germ wasp Nasonia, Nature, vol.439, pp.728-732, 2006.

D. Martin, O. Maestro, J. Cruz, D. Mane-padros, and X. Belles, RNAi studies reveal a conserved role for RXR in molting in the cockroach Blattella germanica, J Insect Physiol, vol.52, pp.410-416, 2006.

M. Meyering-vos, S. Merz, M. Sertkol, and K. H. Hoffmann, Functional analysis of the allatostatin-A type gene in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus and the armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda, Insect Biochem Mol Biol, vol.36, pp.492-504, 2006.

B. L. Niu, W. F. Shen, Y. Liu, H. B. Weng, L. H. He et al., Cloning and RNAimediated functional characterization of MaLac2 of the pine sawyer, Monochamus alternatus, Insect Mol Biol, vol.17, pp.303-312, 2008.

T. Ohde, M. Masumoto, M. Morita-miwa, H. Matsuura, H. Yoshioka et al., Vestigial and scalloped in the ladybird beetle: a conserved function in wing development and a novel function in pupal ecdysis, Insect Mol Biol, vol.18, pp.571-581, 2009.

R. Rajagopal, S. Sivakumar, N. Agrawal, P. Malhotra, and R. K. Bhatnagar, Silencing of midgut aminopeptidase N of Spodoptera litura by double-stranded RNA establishes its role as Bacillus thuringiensis toxin receptor, J Biol Chem, vol.277, pp.46849-46851, 2002.

M. R. Sant'anna, B. Alexander, P. A. Bates, and R. J. Dillon, Gene silencing in phlebotomine sand flies: Xanthine dehydrogenase knock down by dsRNA microinjections, Insect Biochem Mol Biol, vol.38, pp.652-660, 2008.

C. Sim and D. L. Denlinger, Insulin signaling and FOXO regulate the overwintering diapause of the mosquito Culex pipiens, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol.105, pp.6777-6781, 2008.

S. Sivakumar, R. Rajagopal, G. R. Venkatesh, A. Srivastava, and R. K. Bhatnagar, Knockdown of aminopeptidase-N from Helicoverpa armigera larvae and in transfected Sf21 cells by RNA interference reveals its functional interaction with Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal protein Cry1Ac, J Biol Chem, vol.282, pp.7312-7319, 2007.

H. Tabunoki, S. Higurashi, O. Ninagi, H. Fujii, Y. Banno et al., A carotenoid-binding protein (CBP) plays a crucial role in cocoon pigmentation of silkworm (Bombyx mori) larvae, FEBS Lett, vol.567, pp.175-178, 2004.

C. T. Turner, M. W. Davy, R. M. Macdiarmid, K. M. Plummer, N. P. Birch et al., RNA interference in the light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) induced by doublestranded RNA feeding, Insect Mol Biol, vol.15, pp.383-391, 2006.

A. Vallier, C. Vincent-monegat, A. Laurencon, and A. Heddi, RNAi in the cereal weevil Sitophilus spp: systemic gene knockdown in the bacteriome tissue, BMC Biotechnol, vol.9, p.44, 2009.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00407954

L. Vannini, S. Ciolfi, R. Dallai, F. Frati, K. H. Hoffmann et al., Putative-farnesoic acid O-methyltransferase (FAMeT) in medfly reproduction, Arch Insect Biochem Physiol, vol.75, pp.92-106, 2010.

S. Volpi, S. Bongiorni, and G. Prantera, HP2-like protein: a new piece of the facultative heterochromatin puzzle, Chromosoma, vol.116, pp.249-258, 2007.

M. Zhao, I. Soderhall, J. W. Park, Y. G. Ma, T. Osaki et al., A novel 43-kDa protein as a negative regulatory component of phenoloxidase-induced melanin synthesis, J Biol Chem, vol.280, pp.24744-24751, 2005.