D. S. Stephens, B. Greenwood, and P. Brandtzaeg, Epidemic meningitis, meningococcaemia, and Neisseria meningitidis, Lancet, vol.369, pp.61016-61018, 2007.

K. Edmond, A. J. Clark, V. S. Korczak, C. Sanderson, U. K. Griffiths et al., Global and regional risk of disabling sequelae from bacterial meningitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Lancet Infect. Dis, vol.10, issue.10, pp.70048-70055, 2010.

S. A. Halperin, J. A. Bettinger, B. Greenwood, L. H. Harrison, J. Jelfs et al., The changing and dynamic epidemiology of meningococcal disease, Vaccine, vol.30, issue.2, pp.26-36, 2012.

C. V. Broome, The carrier state: Neisseria meningitidis, J. Antimicrob. Chemother, vol.18, pp.25-34, 1986.

K. Cartwright, Meningococcal disease, 1995.

M. C. Maiden, Dynamics of bacterial carriage and disease: lessons from the meningococcus, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol, vol.549, pp.23-29, 2004.

H. Christensen, M. May, L. Bowen, M. Hickman, and C. L. Trotter, Meningococcal carriage by age: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Lancet Infect. Dis, vol.10, issue.10, pp.70251-70257, 2010.

D. A. Caugant, E. A. Høiby, P. Magnus, O. Scheel, T. Hoel et al., Asymptomatic carriage of Neisseria meningitidis in a randomly sampled population, J. Clin. Microbiol, vol.32, pp.323-330, 1994.

D. Bogaert, P. W. Hermans, H. Boelens, M. Sluijter, A. Luijendijk et al., Epidemiology of nasopharyngeal carriage of Neisseria meningitidis in healthy Dutch children, Clin. Infect. Dis, vol.40, pp.899-902, 2005.

H. Claus, M. C. Maiden, D. J. Wilson, N. D. Mccarthy, K. A. Jolley et al., Genetic analysis of meningococci carried by children and young adults, J. Infect. Dis, vol.191, pp.1263-1271, 2005.

A. M. Whitney, G. B. Coulson, A. Von-gottberg, C. Block, N. Keller et al., Genotypic comparison of invasive Neisseria meningitidis serogroup Y isolates from the United States, South Africa, and Israel, isolated from 1999 through 2002, J. Clin. Microbiol, vol.47, pp.2787-2793, 2009.

O. B. Harrison, H. Claus, Y. Jiang, J. S. Bennett, H. B. Bratcher et al., Description and nomenclature of Neisseria meningitidis capsule locus, Emerg. Infect. Dis, vol.19, pp.566-573, 2013.

L. H. Harrison, C. L. Trotter, and M. E. Ramsay, Global epidemiology of meningococcal disease, Vaccine, vol.27, pp.51-63, 2009.

D. A. Caugant, P. A. Kristiansen, X. Wang, L. W. Mayer, M. K. Taha et al., Molecular characterization of invasive meningococcal isolates from countries in the African Meningitis Belt before introduction of a serogroup A conjugate vaccine, PLoS One, vol.7, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-02085540

J. A. Bettinger, D. W. Scheifele, L. Saux, N. Halperin, S. A. Vaudry et al., The disease burden of invasive meningococcal serogroup B disease in Canada, Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J, vol.32, pp.20-25, 2013.

A. B. Ibarz-pavón, A. P. Lemos, M. C. Gorla, M. Regueira, I. I. Sireva-working-group et al., Laboratory-based surveillance of Neisseria meningitidis isolates from disease cases in Latin American and Caribbean countries, SIREVA II, PLoS One, vol.7, 2006.

M. C. Mcellistrem, J. A. Kolano, M. A. Pass, D. A. Caugant, A. B. Mendelsohn et al., Correlating epidemiologic trends with the genotypes causing meningococcal disease, Maryland. Emerg. Infect. Dis, vol.10, pp.451-456, 2004.

L. H. Harrison, K. A. Jolley, K. A. Shutt, J. W. Marsh, M. O'leary et al., Antigenic shift and increased incidence of meningococcal disease, J. Infect. Dis, vol.193, pp.1266-1274, 2006.

S. N. Ladhani, J. Lucidarme, L. S. Newbold, S. J. Gray, A. D. Carr et al., Invasive meningococcal capsular group Y disease, England and Wales, Emerg. Infect. Dis, vol.18, pp.63-70, 2007.

M. Broker, S. Jacobsson, M. Kuusi, D. Pace, M. J. Simoes et al., Meningococcal serogroup Y emergence in Europe: update, Hum. Vaccin. Immunother, vol.8, pp.1907-1911, 2011.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-02085551

, Annual epidemiological report 2012. Reporting on 2010 surveillance data and 2011 epidemic intelligence data, ECDC, 2013.

D. Serruto, M. J. Bottomley, S. Ram, M. M. Giuliani, and R. Rappuoli, The new multicomponent vaccine against meningococcal serogroup B, 4CMenB: immunological, functional and structural characterization of the antigens, Vaccine, vol.30, issue.2, pp.87-97, 2012.

G. Bjune, J. K. Gronnesby, E. A. Høiby, O. Closs, and H. Nokleby, Results of an efficacy trial with an outer membrane vesicle vaccine against systemic serogroup B meningococcal disease in Norway, NIPH Ann, vol.14, pp.125-130, 1991.

F. Caron, I. P. Du-chatelet, J. P. Leroy, C. Ruckly, M. Blanchard et al., From tailor-made to ready-to-wear meningococcal B vaccines: longitudinal study of a clonal meningococcal B outbreak, Lancet Infect. Dis, vol.11, issue.11, pp.70027-70032, 2011.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-02083160

C. Brehony, K. A. Jolley, and M. C. Maiden, Multilocus sequence typing for global surveillance of meningococcal disease, FEMS Microbiol. Rev, vol.31, pp.15-26, 2007.

K. A. Jolley, J. Kalmusova, E. J. Feil, S. Gupta, M. Musilek et al., Carried meningococci in the Czech Republic: a diverse recombining population, J. Clin. Microbiol, vol.38, pp.4492-4498, 2000.

M. Maiden, J. A. Bygraves, E. Feil, G. Morelli, J. E. Russell et al., Multilocus sequence typing: a portable approach to the identification of clones within populations of pathogenic microorganisms, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A, vol.95, pp.3140-3145, 1998.

R. Staden, The Staden sequence analysis package, Mol. Biotechnol, vol.5, pp.233-241, 1996.

C. L. Trotter, M. Chandra, R. Cano, A. Larrauri, M. E. Ramsay et al., A surveillance network for meningococcal disease in Europe, FEMS Microbiol. Rev, vol.31, pp.27-36, 2007.

P. R. Hunter and M. A. Gaston, Numerical index of discriminatory ability of typing systems: an application of Simpson's index of diversity, J. Clin. Microbiol, vol.26, pp.2465-2466, 1988.

H. Grundmann, S. Hori, and G. Tanner, Determining confidence intervals when measuring genetic diversity and the discriminatory abilities of typing methods for microorganisms, J. Clin. Microbiol, vol.39, pp.4190-4192, 2001.

D. A. Robinson, J. A. Sutcliffe, W. Tewodros, A. Manoharan, and D. E. Bessen, Evolution and global dissemination of macrolide-resistant group A streptococci, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother, vol.50, pp.2903-2911, 2006.

P. M. Dull and E. D. Mcintosh, Meningococcal vaccine developmentfrom glycoconjugates against MenACWY to proteins against MenB: potential for broad protection against meningococcal disease, Vaccine, vol.30, issue.2, pp.18-25, 2012.

S. Bambini, J. Piet, A. Muzzi, W. Keijzers, S. Comandi et al., An analysis of the sequence variability of meningococcal fHbp, NadA and NHBA over a 50-year period in the Netherlands, PLoS One, vol.8, 2013.

J. Lucidarme, M. Comanducci, J. Findlow, S. J. Gray, E. B. Kaczmarski et al., Characterization of fHbp, nhba (gna2132), nadA, porA, and sequence type in group B meningococcal case isolates collected in England and Wales during January 2008 and potential coverage of an investigational group B meningococcal vaccine, Clin. Vaccine Immunol, vol.17, pp.919-929, 2010.

U. Vogel, M. K. Taha, J. A. Vazquez, J. Findlow, H. Claus et al., Predicted strain coverage of a meningococcal multicomponent vaccine (4CMenB) in Europe: a qualitative and quantitative assessment, Lancet Infect. Dis, vol.13, issue.13, pp.70006-70015, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-02093031

E. Network, Invasive Neisseria meningitidis in Europe, Health Protection Agency, 2006.

N. E. Rosenstein, B. A. Perkins, D. S. Stephens, L. Lefkowitz, M. L. Cartter et al., The changing epidemiology of meningococcal disease in the United States 1992-1996, J. Infect. Dis, vol.180, pp.1894-1901, 1999.

W. Hellenbrand, J. Elias, O. Wichmann, M. Dehnert, M. Frosch et al., Epidemiology of invasive meningococcal disease in Germany, 2002-2010, and impact of vaccination with meningococcal C conjugate vaccine, J. Infect, vol.66, pp.48-56, 2013.

J. Zhou, B. Lefebvre, S. Deng, R. Gilca, G. Deceuninck et al., persistence of the ST-269 clone since it first emerged in 2003, J. Clin. Microbiol, vol.50, pp.1545-1551, 2003.

A. Skoczyn´skaskoczyn´skoczyn´ska, I. Waoeko, A. Kuch, M. Kad?ubowski, A. Go?êbiewska et al., A decade of invasive meningococcal disease surveillance in Poland, PLoS One, vol.8, 2013.

E. Bille, R. Ure, S. J. Gray, E. B. Kaczmarski, N. D. Mccarthy et al., Association of a bacteriophage with meningococcal disease in young adults, PLoS One, vol.3, 2008.

R. Gold, I. Goldschneider, M. L. Lepow, T. F. Draper, and M. Randolph, Carriage of Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria lactamica in infants and children, J. Infect. Dis, vol.137, pp.112-121, 1978.

J. S. Bennett, D. T. Griffiths, N. D. Mccarthy, K. L. Sleeman, K. A. Jolley et al., Genetic diversity and carriage dynamics of Neisseria lactamica in infants, Infect. Immun, vol.73, pp.2424-2432, 2005.

D. A. Caugant, Population genetics and molecular epidemiology of Neisseria meningitidis, APMIS, vol.106, pp.505-525, 1998.

E. R. Watkins and M. C. Maiden, Persistence of hyperinvasive meningococcal strain types during global spread as recorded in the PubMLST database, PLoS One, vol.7, 2012.

S. P. Yazdankhah, P. Kriz, G. Tzanakaki, J. Kremastinou, J. Kalmusova et al., Distribution of serogroups and genotypes among disease-associated and carried isolates of Neisseria meningitidis from the Czech Republic, Greece, and Norway, J. Clin. Microbiol, vol.42, pp.5146-5153, 2004.

T. Hedberg, S. Toros, B. Fredlund, H. Olcen, P. Molling et al., Genetic characterisation of the emerging invasive Neisseria meningitidis serogroup Y in Sweden, Euro Surveill, vol.16, p.19885, 2000.

U. Jounio, A. Saukkoriipi, H. B. Bratcher, A. Bloigu, R. Juvonen et al., Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of carriage and invasive disease isolates of Neisseria meningitidis in Finland, J. Clin. Microbiol, vol.50, pp.264-273, 2012.

C. Fazio, A. Neri, T. Sofia, A. Carannante, M. G. Caporali et al., Characterisation of Neisseria meningitidis C strains causing two clusters in the north of Italy in, Euro Surveill, vol.14, p.19179, 2007.

. Ala'aldeen, . Da, N. J. Oldfield, F. A. Bidmos, N. M. Abouseada et al., Carriage of meningococci by university students, United Kingdom. Emerg. Infect. Dis, vol.17, pp.1762-1763, 2011.

K. A. Jolley and M. C. Maiden, BIGSdb: scalable analysis of bacterial genome variation at the population level, BMC Bioinformatics, vol.11, p.595, 2010.