T. Who, , 2012.

O. Niare, K. Markianos, J. Volz, F. Oduol, and A. Toure, Genetic loci affecting resistance to human malaria parasites in a West African mosquito vector population, Science, vol.298, pp.213-216, 2002.

D. M. Menge, D. Zhong, T. Guda, L. Gouagna, and J. Githure, Quantitative trait loci controlling refractoriness to Plasmodium falciparum in natural Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes from a malaria-endemic region in western Kenya, Genetics, vol.173, pp.235-241, 2006.

M. M. Riehle, K. Markianos, O. Niare, J. Xu, and J. Li, Natural malaria infection in Anopheles gambiae is regulated by a single genomic control region, Science, vol.312, pp.577-579, 2006.

M. M. Riehle, K. Markianos, L. Lambrechts, A. Xia, and I. Sharakhov, A major genetic locus controlling natural Plasmodium falciparum infection is shared by East and West African Anopheles gambiae, Malar J, vol.6, p.87, 2007.

Y. Dong, R. Aguilar, Z. Xi, E. Warr, and E. Mongin, Anopheles gambiae immune responses to human and rodent Plasmodium parasite species, PLoS Pathog, vol.2, p.52, 2006.

L. S. Garver, Z. Xi, and G. Dimopoulos, Immunoglobulin superfamily members play an important role in the mosquito immune system, Dev Comp Immunol, vol.32, pp.519-531, 2008.

Y. Dong and G. Dimopoulos, Anopheles fibrinogen-related proteins provide expanded pattern recognition capacity against bacteria and malaria parasites, J Biol Chem, vol.284, pp.9835-9844, 2009.

L. Gupta, A. Molina-cruz, S. Kumar, J. Rodrigues, and R. Dixit, The STAT Pathway Mediates Late-Phase Immunity against Plasmodium in the Mosquito Anopheles gambiae, Cell Host & Microbe, vol.5, pp.498-507, 2009.

S. Meister, B. Agianian, F. Turlure, A. Relogio, and I. Morlais, Anopheles gambiae PGRPLC-mediated defense against bacteria modulates infections with malaria parasites, PLoS Pathog, vol.5, p.1000542, 2009.

C. Mitri, J. C. Jacques, I. Thiery, M. M. Riehle, and J. Xu, Fine pathogen discrimination within the APL1 gene family protects Anopheles gambiae against human and rodent malaria species, PLoS Pathog, vol.5, p.1000576, 2009.

S. Kumar, A. Molina-cruz, L. Gupta, J. Rodrigues, and C. Barillas-mury, A Peroxidase/Dual Oxidase System Modulates Midgut Epithelial Immunity in Anopheles gambiae, Science, vol.327, pp.1644-1648, 2010.

Y. Dong, S. Das, C. Cirimotich, J. A. Souza-neto, and K. J. Mclean, Engineered anopheles immunity to Plasmodium infection, PLoS Pathog, vol.7, p.1002458, 2011.

A. M. Mendes, P. H. Awono-ambene, S. E. Nsango, A. Cohuet, and D. Fontenille, Infection intensity-dependent responses of Anopheles gambiae to the African malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, Infect Immun, vol.79, pp.4708-4715, 2011.

M. M. Riehle, J. Xu, B. P. Lazzaro, S. M. Rottschaefer, and B. Coulibaly, Anopheles gambiae APL1 is a family of variable LRR proteins required for Rel1-mediated protection from the malaria parasite, Plasmodium berghei, PLoS One, vol.3, p.3672, 2008.

R. H. Baxter, C. I. Chang, Y. Chelliah, S. Blandin, and E. A. Levashina, Structural basis for conserved complement factor-like function in the antimalarial protein TEP1, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol.104, pp.11615-11620, 2007.

M. Fraiture, R. H. Baxter, S. Steinert, Y. Chelliah, and C. Frolet, Two mosquito LRR proteins function as complement control factors in the TEP1mediated killing of Plasmodium, Cell Host Microbe, vol.5, pp.273-284, 2009.

M. Povelones, L. M. Upton, K. A. Sala, and G. K. Christophides, Structure-function analysis of the Anopheles gambiae LRIM1/APL1C complex and its interaction with complement C3-like protein TEP1, PLoS Pathog, vol.7, p.1002023, 2011.

M. Povelones, R. M. Waterhouse, F. C. Kafatos, and G. K. Christophides, Leucinerich repeat protein complex activates mosquito complement in defense against Plasmodium parasites, Science, vol.324, pp.258-261, 2009.

R. M. Waterhouse, M. Povelones, and G. K. Christophides, Sequence-structurefunction relations of the mosquito leucine-rich repeat immune proteins, BMC Genomics, vol.11, p.531, 2010.

S. M. Rottschaefer, M. M. Riehle, B. Coulibaly, M. Sacko, and O. Niare, Exceptional diversity, maintenance of polymorphism, and recent directional selection on the APL1 malaria resistance genes of Anopheles gambiae, PLoS Biol, vol.9, p.1000600, 2011.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-02008334

S. A. Blandin, R. Wang-sattler, M. Lamacchia, J. Gagneur, and G. Lycett, Dissecting the genetic basis of resistance to malaria parasites in Anopheles gambiae, Science, vol.326, pp.147-150, 2009.

J. E. Crawford, E. Bischoff, T. Garnier, A. Gneme, and K. Eiglmeier, Evidence for population-specific positive selection on immune genes of Anopheles gambiae, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-02008329

H. M. Muller, G. Dimopoulos, C. Blass, and F. C. Kafatos, A hemocyte-like cell line established from the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae expresses six prophenoloxidase genes, J Biol Chem, vol.274, pp.11727-11735, 1999.

C. S. Wilding, D. Weetman, K. Steen, and M. J. Donnelly, High, clustered, nucleotide diversity in the genome of Anopheles gambiae revealed through pooled-template sequencing: implications for high-throughput genotyping protocols, BMC Genomics, vol.10, p.320, 2009.

C. Harris, F. Rousset, I. Morlais, D. Fontenille, and A. Cohuet, Low linkage disequilibrium in wild Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations, BMC Genet, vol.11, p.81, 2010.

H. Hurd, P. J. Taylor, D. Adams, A. Underhill, and P. Eggleston, Evaluating the costs of mosquito resistance to malaria parasites, Evolution, vol.59, pp.2560-2572, 2005.

C. Harris, L. Lambrechts, F. Rousset, L. Abate, and S. E. Nsango, Polymorphisms in Anopheles gambiae immune genes associated with natural resistance to Plasmodium falciparum, PLoS Pathog, vol.6, p.1001112, 2010.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-02011022

T. Ponnudurai, A. H. Lensen, A. D. Leeuwenberg, and J. H. Meuwissen, Cultivation of fertile Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes in semi-automated systems. 1. Static cultures, Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, vol.76, pp.812-818, 1982.

M. J. Rieder, S. L. Taylor, V. O. Tobe, and D. A. Nickerson, Automating the identification of DNA variations using quality-based fluorescence re-sequencing: analysis of the human mitochondrial genome, Nucleic Acids Res, vol.26, pp.967-973, 1998.

R. Fisher, Statistical Methods for Research Workers, 1932.

R. H. Baxter, S. Steinert, Y. Chelliah, G. Volohonsky, and E. A. Levashina, A heterodimeric complex of the LRR proteins LRIM1 and APL1C regulates complement-like immunity in Anopheles gambiae, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol.107, pp.16817-16822, 2010.