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Dark matter in archaeal genomes: a rich source of novel mobile elements, defense systems and secretory complexes

Abstract : Microbial genomes encompass a sizable fraction of poorly characterized, narrowly spread fast-evolving genes. Using sensitive methods for sequences comparison and protein structure prediction, we performed a detailed comparative analysis of clusters of such genes, which we denote "dark matter islands", in archaeal genomes. The dark matter islands comprise up to 20% of archaeal genomes and show remarkable heterogeneity and diversity. Nevertheless, three classes of entities are common in these genomic loci: (a) integrated viral genomes and other mobile elements; (b) defense systems, and (c) secretory and other membrane-associated systems. The dark matter islands in the genome of thermophiles and mesophiles show similar general trends of gene content, but thermophiles are substantially enriched in predicted membrane proteins whereas mesophiles have a greater proportion of recognizable mobile elements. Based on this analysis, we predict the existence of several novel groups of viruses and mobile elements, previously unnoticed variants of CRISPR-Cas immune systems, and new secretory systems that might be involved in stress response, intermicrobial conflicts and biogenesis of novel, uncharacterized membrane structures.
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Kira S. Makarova, Yuri I. Wolf, Patrick Forterre, David Prangishvili, Mart Krupovic, et al.. Dark matter in archaeal genomes: a rich source of novel mobile elements, defense systems and secretory complexes. Extremophiles, Springer Verlag, 2014, 18 (5), pp.877-893. ⟨10.1007/s00792-014-0672-7⟩. ⟨pasteur-01977394⟩

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