J. V. Giorgi, L. E. Hultin, J. A. Mckeating, T. D. Johnson, and B. Owens, Shorter survival in advanced human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection is more closely associated with T lymphocyte activation than with plasma virus burden or virus chemokine coreceptor usage, J Infect Dis, vol.179, pp.859-870, 1999.

M. Shi, J. M. Taylor, J. L. Fahey, D. R. Hoover, and A. Munoz, Early levels of CD4, neopterin, and beta 2-microglobulin indicate future disease progression, J Clin Immunol, vol.17, pp.43-52, 1997.

M. D. Hazenberg, S. A. Otto, B. H. Van-benthem, M. T. Roos, and R. A. Coutinho, Persistent immune activation in HIV-1 infection is associated with progression to AIDS, Aids, vol.17, pp.1881-1888, 2003.

C. Goujard, M. Bonarek, L. Meyer, F. Bonnet, and M. L. Chaix, CD4 cell count and HIV DNA level are independent predictors of disease progression after primary HIV type 1 infection in untreated patients, Clin Infect Dis, vol.42, pp.709-715, 2006.

S. G. Deeks, C. M. Kitchen, L. Liu, H. Guo, and R. Gascon, Immune activation set point during early HIV infection predicts subsequent CD4+ T-cell changes independent of viral load, Blood, vol.104, pp.942-947, 2004.

A. R. Stacey, P. J. Norris, L. Qin, E. A. Haygreen, and E. Taylor, Induction of a striking systemic cytokine cascade prior to peak viraemia in acute human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection, in contrast to more modest and delayed responses in acute hepatitis B and C virus infections, J Virol: JVI, pp.1844-01808, 2009.

C. Gay, O. Dibben, J. A. Anderson, A. Stacey, and A. J. Mayo, CrossSectional Detection of Acute HIV Infection: Timing of Transmission, Inflammation and Antiretroviral Therapy, PLoS One, vol.6, p.19617, 2011.

H. Kramer, K. Lavender, L. Qin, A. Stacey, and M. Liu, Elevation of intact and proteolytic fragments of acute phase proteins constitutes the earliest systemic antiviral response in HIV-1 infection, PLoS Pathog, vol.6, issue.5, p.1000893, 2010.

P. Katsikis, Y. Mueller, and F. Villinger, The Cytokine Network of Acute HIV Infection: A Promising Target for Vaccines and Therapy to Reduce Viral SetPoint?, PLOS Pathog, vol.7, pp.1002055-1002055, 2011.

C. Kornfeld, M. J. Ploquin, I. Pandrea, A. Faye, and R. Onanga, Antiinflammatory profiles during primary SIV infection in African green monkeys are associated with protection against AIDS, J Clin Invest, vol.115, pp.1082-1091, 2005.

M. J. Ploquin, J. F. Desoutter, P. R. Santos, I. Pandrea, and O. M. Diop, Distinct expression profiles of TGF-beta1 signaling mediators in pathogenic SIVmac and non-pathogenic SIVagm infections, Retrovirology, vol.3, p.37, 2006.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00089761

O. M. Diop, M. J. Ploquin, L. Mortara, F. A. Jacquelin, and B. , Plasmacytoid dendritic cell dynamics and alpha interferon production during Simian immunodeficiency virus infection with a nonpathogenic outcome, J Virol, vol.82, pp.5145-5152, 2008.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00345347

M. Meythaler, A. Martinot, Z. Wang, S. Pryputniewicz, and M. Kasheta, Differential CD4+ T-Lymphocyte Apoptosis and Bystander T-Cell Activation in Rhesus Macaques and Sooty Mangabeys during Acute Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection, J Virol, vol.83, pp.572-583, 2009.

L. Campillo-gimenez, M. Laforge, M. Fay, A. Brussel, and M. C. Cumont, Nonpathogenesis of simian immunodeficiency virus infection is associated with reduced inflammation and recruitment of plasmacytoid dendritic cells to lymph nodes, not to lack of an interferon type I response, during the acute phase, J Virol, vol.84, pp.1838-1846, 2010.

B. Jacquelin, V. Mayau, B. Targat, A. S. Liovat, and D. Kunkel, Nonpathogenic SIV infection of African green monkeys induces a strong but rapidly controlled type I IFN response, J Clin Invest, vol.119, pp.3544-3555, 2009.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-01968918

D. Favre, S. Lederer, B. Kanwar, Z. M. Ma, and S. Proll, Critical loss of the balance between Th17 and T regulatory cell populations in pathogenic SIV infection, PLoS Pathog, vol.5, p.1000295, 2009.

L. D. Harris, B. Tabb, D. L. Sodora, M. Paiardini, and N. R. Klatt, Downregulation of robust acute type I interferon responses distinguishes nonpathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of natural hosts from pathogenic SIV infection of rhesus macaques, J Virol, vol.84, pp.7886-7891, 2010.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-01968882

A. Durudas, J. M. Milush, H. L. Chen, J. C. Engram, and G. Silvestri, Elevated levels of innate immune modulators in lymph nodes and blood are associated with more-rapid disease progression in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected monkeys, J Virol, vol.83, pp.12229-12240, 2009.

S. E. Bosinger, Q. Li, S. N. Gordon, N. R. Klatt, and L. Duan, Global genomic analysis reveals rapid control of a robust innate response in SIV-infected sooty mangabeys, J Clin Invest, vol.119, pp.3556-3572, 2009.

J. D. Estes, Q. Li, M. R. Reynolds, S. Wietgrefe, and L. Duan, Premature induction of an immunosuppressive regulatory T cell response during acute simian immunodeficiency virus infection, J Infect Dis, vol.193, pp.703-712, 2006.

J. Estes, S. Gordon, M. Zeng, A. Chahroudi, and R. Dunham, Early resolution of acute immune activation and induction of PD-1 in SIV-infected sooty mangabeys distinguishes nonpathogenic from pathogenic infection in rhesus macaques, J Immunol, vol.180, pp.6798-6807, 2008.

J. Ananworanich, A. Schuetz, C. Vandergeeten, I. Sereti, and M. De-souza, Impact of multi-targeted antiretroviral treatment on gut T cell depletion and HIV reservoir seeding during acute HIV infection, PLOS one, vol.7, p.33948, 2012.

L. Bebell, J. Passmore, C. Williamson, K. Mlisana, and I. Iriogbe, Relationship between levels of inflammatory cytokines in the genital tract and CD4+ cell counts in women with acute HIV-1 infection, J Infect Dis, vol.198, pp.714-714, 2008.

L. Roberts, J. A. Passmore, C. Williamson, F. Little, and L. M. Bebell, Plasma cytokine levels during acute HIV-1 infection predict HIV disease progression, Aids, vol.24, pp.819-831, 2010.

Y. Jiao, T. Zhang, R. Wang, H. Zhang, and X. Huang, Plasma IP-10 Is Associated with Rapid Disease Progression in Early HIV-1 Infection, Viral Immunology, vol.25, pp.333-337, 2012.

J. Ghosn, C. Deveau, M. Chaix, C. Goujard, and J. Galimand, Despite being highly diverse, immunovirological status strongly correlates with clinical symptoms during primary HIV-1 infection: a cross-sectional study based on 674 patients enrolled in the ANRS CO 06 PRIMO cohort, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol.65, pp.741-748, 2010.

P. Troude, M. Chaix, L. Tran, C. Deveau, and R. Seng, No evidence of a change in HIV-1 virulence since 1996 in France; a study based on the CD4 cell count and HIV RNA/DNA levels at primary infection, AIDS, vol.23, pp.1261-1267, 2009.

A. Muñ-oz, C. Sabin, and A. Phillips, The incubation period of AIDS, AIDS, vol.11, pp.55-56, 1997.

D. E. Nixon and A. L. Landay, Biomarkers of immune dysfunction in HIV, Curr Opin HIV AIDS, vol.5, pp.498-503, 2010.

P. Norris, B. Pappalardo, B. Custer, G. Spotts, and F. Hecht, Elevations in IL-10, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma from the earliest point of HIV Type 1 infection, AIDS Res & Hum Retroviruses, vol.22, pp.757-762, 2006.

J. D. Estes, S. Wietgrefe, T. Schacker, P. Southern, and G. Beilman, Simian immunodeficiency virus-induced lymphatic tissue fibrosis is mediated by transforming growth factor beta 1-positive regulatory T cells and begins in early infection, J Infect Dis, vol.195, pp.551-561, 2007.

J. P. Herbeuval and G. M. Shearer, HIV-1 immunopathogenesis: how good interferon turns bad, Clin Immunol, vol.123, pp.121-128, 2007.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00110852

M. Zeng, A. J. Smith, S. W. Wietgrefe, P. J. Southern, and T. W. Schacker, Cumulative mechanisms of lymphoid tissue fibrosis and T cell depletion in HIV1 and SIV infections, J Clin Invest, vol.121, pp.998-1008, 2011.

K. Nakanishi, T. Yoshimoto, H. Tsutsui, and H. Okamura, Interleukin-18 regulates both Th1 and Th2 responses, Annu Rev Immunol, vol.19, pp.423-474, 2001.

J. W. Mellors, L. A. Kingsley, C. R. Rinaldo, J. A. Todd, and B. S. Hoo, Quantitation of HIV-1 RNA in plasma predicts outcome after seroconversion, AnnIntMed, vol.122, pp.573-579, 1995.

S. Keating, E. Golub, M. Nowicki, M. Young, and K. Anastos, The effect of HIV infection and HAART on inflammatory biomarkers in a population-based cohort of women, AIDS, vol.25, pp.1823-1832, 2011.

A. Kamat, V. Misra, E. Cassol, P. Ancuta, and Z. Yan, A plasma biomarker signature of immune activation in HIV patients on anti-retroviral therapy, PLOS one, vol.7, p.30881, 2012.

A. N. Theofilopoulos, R. Baccala, B. Beutler, and D. H. Kono, Type I interferons (alpha/beta) in immunity and autoimmunity, Annu Rev Immunol, vol.23, pp.307-336, 2005.

B. Malleret, B. Maneglier, I. Karlsson, P. Lebon, and M. Nascimbeni, Primary infection with simian immunodeficiency virus: plasmacytoid dendritic cell homing to lymph nodes, type I interferon, and immune suppression, Blood, vol.112, pp.4598-4608, 2008.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00345337

E. Khatissian, L. Chakrabarti, and B. Hurtrel, Cytokine patterns and viral load in lymph nodes during the early stages of SIV infection, Res Virol, vol.147, pp.181-189, 1996.

E. Thorburn, L. Kolesar, E. Brabcova, K. Petrickova, and M. Petricek, CXC and CC chemokines induced in human renal epithelial cells by inflammatory cytokines, APMIS, vol.117, pp.477-487, 2009.

J. F. Foley, C. R. Yu, R. Solow, M. Yacobucci, and K. W. Peden, Roles for CXC chemokine ligands 10 and 11 in recruiting CD4+ T cells to HIV-1infected monocyte-derived macrophages, dendritic cells, and lymph nodes, J Immunol, vol.174, pp.4892-4900, 2005.

L. Piali, C. Weber, G. Larosa, C. R. Mackay, and T. A. Springer, The chemokine receptor CXCR3 mediates rapid and shear-resistant adhesioninduction of effector T lymphocytes by the chemokines IP10 and Mig, Eur J Immunol, vol.28, pp.961-972, 1998.

L. Cervantes-barragán, S. Firner, I. Bechmann, A. Waisman, and K. Lahl, Regulatory T cells selectively preserve immune privilege of self-antigens during viral central nervous system infection, J Immunol, vol.188, pp.3678-3685, 2012.

M. Lederman and L. Margolis, The lymph node in HIV pathogenesis, Seminar Immunol, vol.20, pp.187-195, 2008.

S. Sarkar, V. Kalia, M. Murphey-corb, R. Montelaro, and T. Reinhart, Expression of IFN-gamma induced CXCR3 agonist chemokines and compartmentalization of CXCR3+ cells in the periphery and lymph nodes of rhesus macaques during simian immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, J Med Primatol, vol.32, pp.247-264, 2003.

B. Lane, S. King, P. Bock, R. Strieter, and M. Coffey, The C-X-C chemokine IP-10 stimulates HIV-1 replication, Virology, vol.307, pp.122-134, 2003.

J. Andersson, A. Boasso, J. Nilsson, R. Zhang, and N. J. Shire, The prevalence of regulatory T cells in lymphoid tissue is correlated with viral load in HIV-infected patients, J Immunol, vol.174, pp.3143-3147, 2005.

J. Mellors, J. B. Margolick, J. P. Phair, C. R. Rinaldo, and R. Detels, Prognostic value of HIV-1 RNA, CD4 cell count, and CD4 Cell count slope for progression to AIDS and death in untreated HIV-1 infection, JAMA, vol.297, pp.2349-2350, 2007.

J. M. Brenchley, D. A. Price, T. W. Schacker, T. E. Asher, and G. Silvestri, Microbial translocation is a cause of systemic immune activation in chronic HIV infection, Nat Med, vol.12, pp.1365-1371, 2006.

C. Lecuroux, I. Girault, A. Urrutia, J. M. Doisne, and C. Deveau, Identification of a particular HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell subset with a CD27+, 2009.

, CD45RO2/RA+ phenotype and memory characteristics after initiation of HAART during acute primary HIV infection, Blood, vol.113, pp.3209-3217

Y. Benjamini and Y. Hochberg, Controlling the False Discovery Rate: a practical and powerful approach to multiple testing, J Royal Stat Soc Ser B, vol.57, pp.289-300, 1995.