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The ENIGMA Consortium : large-scale collaborative analyses of neuroimaging and genetic data

Paul M. Thompson 1, 2, * Jason L. Stein 3 Sarah Medland 4 Derrek D Hibar 2 Alejandro Arias Vasquez 5 Miguel E. Renteria 4 Roberto Toro 6 Neda Jahanshad 2 Gunter Schumann 7 Barbara Franke 5 Margaret J. Wright 4 Nicholas G. Martin 4 Ingrid Agartz 8, 9, 10 Martin Alda 11 Saud Alhusaini 12, 13 Laura Almasy 14 Jorge Almeida 11, 15 Kathryn Alpert 16 Nancy C. Andreasen 17 Ole A. Andreassen 18, 19 Liana G. Apostolova 3 Katja Appel 20, 21 Nicola J. Armstrong 22 Benjamin Aribisala 23, 24 Mark E. Bastin 23, 24 Michael Bauer 25 Carrie E. Bearden 26 Ørjan Bergmann 27 Elisabeth B. Binder 28 John Blangero 14 Henry J. Bockholt 17 Erlend Bøen 27, 18 Catherine Bois 29, 23 Dorret I. Boomsma 30, 31 Tom Booth 32 Ian J. Bowman 33 Janita Bralten 34, 5 Rachel M. Brouwer 35, 36 Han G. Brunner 5, 37 David G. Brohawn 38, 39 Randy L. Buckner 40, 41 Jan Buitelaar 42, 34 Kazima M Bulayeva 43, 44 Juan R. Bustillo 45 Vince D. Calhoun 46, 47 Dara M. Cannon 48 Rita M. Cantor 49, 50 Melanie A. Carless 14 Xavier Caseras 51 Gianpiero L. Cavalleri 12 M. Mallar Chakravarty 52, 53 Kiki D. Chang 54 Christopher R. K. Ching 33 Andrea Christoforou 19, 55 Sven Cichon 56, 57, 58 Vincent P. Clark 45 Patricia Conrod 7, 59 Giovanni Coppola 26, 3 Benedicto Crespo-Facorro 60, 61 Joanne E Curran 14 Michael Czisch 28 Ian J. Deary 62 Eco J. C. de Geus 30, 31 Anouk den Braber 30 Giuseppe Delvecchio 7 Chantal Depondt 63 Lieuwe de Haan 31 Greig I. de Zubicaray 64 Danai Dima 7 Rali Dimitrova 29, 23 Srdjan Djurovic 8, 19, 18 Hongwei Dong 33 Gary Donohoe 48, 65 Ravindranath Duggirala 14 Thomas D. Dyer 14 Stefan Ehrlich 66, 67 Carl Johan Ekman 9, 10 Torbjørn Elvsåshagen 27, 18 Louise Emsell 48 Susanne Erk 68 Thomas Espeseth 19 Jesen Fagerness 66 Scott Fears 26 Iryna Fedko 30 Guillén Fernández 34, 5 Simon E. Fisher 34, 69 Tatiana Foroud 70 Peter T. Fox 71, 72 Clyde Francks 69, 34 Sophia D Frangou 73 Eva Maria Frey 74 Thomas Frodl 74, 65 Vincent Frouin 75 Hugh Garavan 76 Sudheer Giddaluru 77, 55 David C. Glahn 78, 79 Beata Godlewska 80 Rita Z. Goldstein 81 Randy L. Gollub 82, 66 Hans J. Grabe 20, 83, 84, 21 Oliver Grimm 85 Oliver Gruber 86 Tulio Guadalupe 87, 69 Raquel E. Gur 88 Ruben C. Gur 88 Harald H. H. Göring 14 Saskia Hagenaars 29, 23 Tomas Hajek 11 Geoffrey B. Hall 89 Jérémy Hall 23, 29 John Hardy 90 Catharina A. Hartman 91 Johanna Hass 67 Sean N. Hatton 92 Unn K. Haukvik 93, 19 Katrin Hegenscheid 20, 21 Andreas Heinz 68 Ian B. Hickie 92 Beng-Choon Ho 17 David Hoehn 28 Pieter J. Hoekstra 91 Marisa Hollinshead 39, 41 Avram J. Holmes 39, 41 Georg Homuth 20, 21 Martine Hoogman 5 L. Elliot Hong 94 Norbert Hosten 20, 21 Jouke-Jan Hottenga 30 Hilleke E. Hulshoff Pol 35 Kristy S. Hwang 95, 96 Clifford R. Jack Jr 97 Mark Jenkinson 98 Caroline Johnston 7, 99 Erik G. Jönsson 9, 10 René S. Kahn 35, 36 Dalia Kasperaviciute 90 Sinead Kelly 100, 65 Sungeun Kim 101 Peter M. Kochunov 102 Laura Koenders 31, 30 Bernd Krämer 86 John B. J. Kwok 103, 104 Jim Lagopoulos 92 Gonzalo Laje 105 Mikael Landén 106, 107 Bennett A. Landman 108 John Lauriello 109 Stephen M. Lawrie 29, 23 Phil H. Lee 110, 39 Stephanie Le Hellard 19, 55 Hervé Lemaître 111, 112, 113, 114 Cassandra D. Leonardo 33 Chiang-Shan Li 115 Benny Liberg 107 David C. Liewald 62 Xinmin Liu 116, 117 Lorna M. Lopez 23 Eva Loth 7 Anbarasu Lourdusamy 118 Michelle Luciano 23 Fabio Macciardi 119, 120 Marise W. J. Machielsen 31 Glenda M. MacQueen 121, 122 Ulrik F. Malt 18, 123 René Mandl 35 Dara S. Manoach 39 Jean-Luc Martinot 124, 114, 112, 111 Mar Matarin 90 Karen Mather 125 Manuel Mattheisen 126, 56, 127 Morten Mattingsdal 19, 128 Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg 129 Colm McDonald 48 Andrew McIntosh 23, 29 Francis J. McMahon 116 Katie L. McMahon 130, 131 Eva Meisenzahl 132 Ingrid Melle 19, 27 Yuri Milaneschi 133, 31, 30 Sebastian Mohnke 68 Grant W. Montgomery 134 Derek W. Morris 65 Eric K. Moses 135, 14 Bryon A. Mueller 136 Susana Muñoz Maniega 23, 24 Thomas W. Mühleisen 56, 57 Bertram Müller-Myhsok 28, 137 Benson Mwangi 138 Matthias Nauck 20, 21 Kwangsik Nho 139 Thomas E. Nichols 140 Lars-Göran Nilsson 141, 142 Allison C. Nugent 116 Lars Nyberg 143, 144 Rene L. Olvera 145 Jaap Oosterlaan 146, 30 Roel A. Ophoff 147, 50, 35, 36 Massimo Pandolfo 63 Melina Papalampropoulou-Tsiridou 29, 23 Martina Papmeyer 23, 29 Tomas Paus 148, 149 Zdenka Pausova 150 Godfrey D. Pearlson 20, 115, 21 Brenda W. Penninx 31, 30 Charles P. Peterson 14 Andrea Pfennig 25 Mary Phillips 151, 152 G. Bruce Pike 148, 122 Jean-Baptiste Poline 153, 154 Steven G. Potkin 155 Benno Pütz 28 Adaikalavan Ramasamy 156, 157, 158, 90 Jerod Rasmussen 155 Marcella Rietschel 129, 85 Mark Rijpkema 34 Shannon L. Risacher 101, 159 Joshua L. Roffman 40 Roberto Roiz-Santiañez 60, 61, 160 Nina Romanczuk-Seiferth 68 Emma J. Rose 161 Natalie A. Royle 162, 24, 23 Dan Rujescu 163 Mina Ryten 164, 90, 165 Perminder Sachdev 166, 103 Alireza Salami 143, 144, 167 Theodore D. Satterthwaite 88 Jonathan Savitz 88, 168, 169 Andrew J. Saykin 68 Cathy Scanlon 48 Lianne Schmaal 30 Hugo G. Schnack 36 Andrew J. Schork 170, 171 S. Charles Schulz 172 Remmelt Schür 36 Larry Seidman 173, 174 Li Shen 101 Jody M. Shoemaker 46 Andrew Simmons 7, 175, 176 Sanjay Sisodiya 177 Colin Smith 178, 23 Jordan W. Smoller 179, 40, 110 Jair C. Soares 138 Scott R. Sponheim 180, 172 Emma Sprooten 78 John M. Starr 62, 23, 181 Vidar M. Steen 55, 19 Stephen Strakowski 182, 183 Lachlan Strike 134 Jessika Sussmann 29, 23 Philipp G. Sämann 28 Alexander Teumer 21 Arthur W. Toga 1, 33 Diana Tordesillas-Gutierrez 184, 61, 160, 60 Daniah Trabzuni 158, 90, 185 Sarah Trost 86 Jessica Turner 186, 46 Martijn D. van den Heuvel 36 Nic J. van Der Wee 187, 188 Kristel van Eijk 35, 36 Theo G. M. van Erp 155 Neeltje E. M. van Haren 36 Dennis van’t Ent 189 Marie-Jose van Tol 91 Maria C. Valdés Hernández 23 Dick J. Veltman 30 Amelia Versace 152 Henry Völzke 190, 20 Robert Walker 191 Henrik Walter 68, 192 Lei Wang 16 Joanna Wardlaw 23, 162 Michael E. Weale 165 Michael W. Weiner 193 Wei Wen 125 Lars T. Westlye 194, 19 Heather C. Whalley 29, 195 Christopher D. Whelan 12 Tonya White 196 Anderson M. Winkler 98, 115 Katharina Wittfeld 83 Girma Woldehawariat 116 Christiane Wolf 28 David Zilles 86 Marcel P. Zwiers 34 Anbupalam Thalamuthu 125 Peter R. Schofield 104, 103 Nelson B. Freimer 197, 50 Natalia S. Lawrence 198 Wayne Drevets 199 
* Corresponding author
19 NORMENT - Norwegian Centre for Mental Disorders Research [Oslo]
UiO - University of Oslo, Haukeland University Hospital, Oslo University Hospital [Oslo]
153 PARIETAL - Modelling brain structure, function and variability based on high-field MRI data
NEUROSPIN - Service NEUROSPIN, Inria Saclay - Ile de France
191 The Centre for Regenerative Medicine
University of Edinburgh
Abstract : The Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium is a collaborative network of researchers working together on a range of large-scale studies that integrate data from 70 institutions worldwide. Organized into Working Groups that tackle questions in neuroscience, genetics, and medicine, ENIGMA studies have analyzed neuroimaging data from over 12,826 subjects. In addition, data from 12,171 individuals were provided by the CHARGE consortium for replication of findings, in a total of 24,997 subjects. By meta-analyzing results from many sites, ENIGMA has detected factors that affect the brain that no individual site could detect on its own, and that require larger numbers of subjects than any individual neuroimaging study has currently collected. ENIGMA's first project was a genome-wide association study identifying common variants in the genome associated with hippocampal volume or intracranial volume. Continuing work is exploring genetic associations with subcortical volumes (ENIGMA2) and white matter microstructure (ENIGMA-DTI). Working groups also focus on understanding how schizophrenia, bipolar illness, major depression and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affect the brain. We review the current progress of the ENIGMA Consortium, along with challenges and unexpected discoveries made on the way.
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Paul M. Thompson, Jason L. Stein, Sarah Medland, Derrek D Hibar, Alejandro Arias Vasquez, et al.. The ENIGMA Consortium : large-scale collaborative analyses of neuroimaging and genetic data. Brain imaging and behavior (Brain Imaging Behav), 2014, 8 (2), pp.152-182. ⟨10.1007/s11682-013-9269-5⟩. ⟨pasteur-01967166⟩

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