A. Lefort, J. Mantz, S. Pease, L. Lavagna, M. H. Nicolas?chanoine et al., of collaborators of the EVAMICA study team Centre APHP-Beaujon

A. Centre,

A. Centre and . Mondor,

A. Centre, Jean?Louis Trouillet

A. Centre and . Antoine,

A. Centre, P. Raffoux, and . Ribaud,

C. Centre and . Pellegrin,

C. Centre, C. Morvan, and . Blanche,

C. Centre and . Michallon,

C. Centre, F. Lille, V. Berthon, and . Coiteux,

C. Centre, C. Dugard, C. Tisseuil, D. Duchiron, D. Ajzenberg et al.,

C. Centre and C. Rousse,

C. L. Centre and . Timone,

B. Kolb, Q. H. Lé, M. Appriou, and J. Cousson,

C. Centre, F. Etienne, C. Guyotat, F. Auboyer, E. Zeni et al.,

, References

R. Dellinger, M. Levy, A. Rhodes, D. Annane, H. Gerlach et al., Surviving Sepsis Campaign, Critical Care Medicine, vol.41, issue.2, pp.165-228, 2012.
DOI : 10.1097/CCM.0b013e31827e83af

M. De-kraker, V. Jarlier, J. Monen, O. Heuer, N. Van-de-sande et al., The changing epidemiology of bacteraemias in Europe: trends from the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System, Clinical Microbiology and Infection, vol.19, issue.9, pp.860-868, 2013.
DOI : 10.1111/1469-0691.12028

A. Freifeld, E. Bow, K. Sepkowitz, M. Boeckh, J. Ito et al., Clinical Practice Guideline for the Use of Antimicrobial Agents in Neutropenic Patients with Cancer: 2010 Update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America, Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol.29, issue.526, pp.56-93, 2011.
DOI : 10.1086/591060

J. Li, D. Sexton, M. N. Nettles, R. Fowler, V. Jr et al., Proposed Modifications to the Duke Criteria for the Diagnosis of Infective Endocarditis, Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol.129, issue.5, pp.633-638, 2000.
DOI : 10.1001/archinte.129.2.345

X. Duval, F. Delahaye, A. F. Tattevin, P. Obadia, J. et al., Temporal Trends in Infective Endocarditis in the Context of Prophylaxis Guideline Modifications, Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol.59, issue.22, pp.1968-1976, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jacc.2012.02.029

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00825449

A. Shorr, S. Micek, E. Welch, J. Doherty, R. Reichley et al., Inappropriate antibiotic therapy in Gram-negative sepsis increases hospital length of stay*, Critical Care Medicine, vol.39, issue.1, pp.46-51, 2011.
DOI : 10.1097/CCM.0b013e3181fa41a7

A. Kumar, D. Roberts, K. Wood, B. Light, J. Parrillo et al., Duration of hypotension before initiation of effective antimicrobial therapy is the critical determinant of survival in human septic shock*, Critical Care Medicine, vol.34, issue.6, pp.1589-1596, 2006.
DOI : 10.1097/01.CCM.0000217961.75225.E9

J. Timsit, G. Citerio, J. Bakker, M. Bassetti, D. Benoit et al., Year in review in Intensive Care Medicine 2013: III. Sepsis, infections, respiratory diseases, pediatrics, Intensive Care Medicine, vol.39, issue.4, pp.471-483, 2014.
DOI : 10.1007/s00134-013-2893-0

B. Bell, F. Schellevis, E. Stobberingh, H. Goossens, and M. Pringle, A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of antibiotic consumption on antibiotic resistance, BMC Infectious Diseases, vol.16, issue.10, p.13, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/S0169-5347(01)02235-2

C. Brun?buisson, P. Meshaka, P. Pinton, and B. Vallet, EPISEPSIS: a reap? praisal of the epidemiology and outcome of severe sepsis in French intensive care units, Intensive Care Med, vol.30, pp.580-588, 2004.

C. Pautas, E. Sbidian, Y. Hicheri, S. Bastuji?garin, S. Bretagne et al., A new workflow for the microbiological diagnosis of febrile neutropenia in patients with a central venous catheter, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol.5, issue.8, pp.943-946, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jinf.2009.03.001

K. Reinhart, M. Bauer, N. Riedemann, and C. Hartog, New Approaches to Sepsis: Molecular Diagnostics and Biomarkers, Clinical Microbiology Reviews, vol.25, issue.4, pp.609-634, 2012.
DOI : 10.1128/CMR.00016-12

URL : http://cmr.asm.org/content/25/4/609.full.pdf

C. Cordonnier, A. Buzyn, G. Leverger, R. Herbrecht, M. Hunault et al., Epidemiology and Risk Factors for Gram???Positive Coccal Infections in Neutropenia: Toward a More Targeted Antibiotic Strategy, Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol.15, issue.2, pp.149-158, 2003.
DOI : 10.1093/clinids/15.2.290

URL : https://academic.oup.com/cid/article-pdf/36/2/149/897672/36-2-149.pdf

E. Baron, J. Miller, M. Weinstein, S. Richter, P. Gilligan et al., A Guide to Utilization of the Microbiology Laboratory for Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases: 2013 Recommendations by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and the American Society for Microbiology (ASM)a, Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol.6, issue.9, pp.22-121, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/S1473-3099(06)70579-5

A. Tabah, D. Koulenti, K. Laupland, B. Misset, J. Valles et al., Characteristics and determinants of outcome of hospital-acquired bloodstream infections in intensive care units: the EUROBACT International Cohort Study, Intensive Care Medicine, vol.378, issue.12, pp.1930-1945, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60401-7

I. See, A. Freifeld, and S. Magill, Causative Organisms and Associated Antimicrobial Resistance in Healthcare-Associated, Central Line???Associated Bloodstream Infections From Oncology Settings, 2009???2012, Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol.13, issue.10, pp.1203-1209, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ajic.2014.11.014

URL : http://europepmc.org/articles/pmc4894695?pdf=render

K. Madaras?kelly, M. Jones, R. R. Caplinger, C. Huttner, B. Samore et al., Description and validation of a spectrum score method to measure antimicrobial de-escalation in healthcare associated pneumonia from electronic medical records data, BMC Infectious Diseases, vol.67, issue.8, p.197, 2015.
DOI : 10.1093/jac/dks145

J. Garnacho?montero, A. Gutierrez?pizarraya, A. Escoresca?ortega, Y. Corcia?palomo, E. Fernandez?delgado et al., De-escalation of empirical therapy is associated with lower mortality in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock, Intensive Care Medicine, vol.53, issue.Suppl 2, pp.32-40, 2014.
DOI : 10.1093/cid/cir475

P. Dark, B. Blackwood, S. Gates, D. Mcauley, G. Perkins et al., , 2014.

, SeptiFast for the detection and identification of pathogens in the blood of patients with suspected sepsis: a systematic review and meta?analysis, Intensive Care Med, vol.41, pp.21-33

S. Chang, W. Hsieh, T. Liu, S. Lee, C. Wang et al., Multiplex PCR System for Rapid Detection of Pathogens in Patients with Presumed Sepsis ??? A Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis, PLoS ONE, vol.224, issue.5, p.62323, 2013.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0062323.s003

M. Avolio, P. Diamante, M. Modolo, D. Rosa, R. Stano et al., Direct Molecular Detection of Pathogens in Blood as Specific Rule-In Diagnostic Biomarker in Patients With Presumed Sepsis, Shock, vol.42, issue.2, pp.86-92, 2014.
DOI : 10.1097/SHK.0000000000000191

F. Ratzinger, I. Tsirkinidou, H. Haslacher, T. Perkmann, K. Schmetterer et al., Evaluation of the Septifast MGrade Test on Standard Care Wards???A Cohort Study, PLOS ONE, vol.42, issue.2, p.151108, 2016.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0151108.s004

E. Cambau and M. Bauer, Multi-pathogen real-time PCR system adds benefit for my patients: yes, Intensive Care Medicine, vol.40, issue.4, pp.528-530, 2015.
DOI : 10.1128/CMR.00062-05

E. Cambau, I. Durand?zaleski, S. Bretagne, C. Brun?buisson, C. Cordonnier et al., The Evamica study team (2013) Performance and economic evaluation of the molecular detection of pathogens for patients with severe infections: the EVAMICA open?label cluster?randomised interventional crossover trial, ESCMID, p.3398

G. Habib, B. Hoen, P. Tornos, F. Thuny, B. Prendergast et al., Guidelines on the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of infective endocarditis (new version 2009): the Task Force on the Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Infective Endocarditis of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC), Endorsed by the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) and the International Society of Chemotherapy (ISC) for Infec? tion and Cancer, pp.2369-2413, 2009.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00465409

D. Husereau, M. Drummond, S. Petrou, C. Carswell, D. Moher et al., Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) Statement, Consolidated health economic evaluation reporting standards (CHEERS) statement, pp.1-5, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jval.2013.02.010

O. Brien, B. Briggs, and A. , Analysis of uncertainty in health care cost? effectiveness studies: an introduction to statistical issues and methods, Stat Methods Med Res, vol.11, pp.455-468, 2002.

A. Briggs, O. Brien, and B. , The death of cost-minimization analysis?, Health Economics, vol.6, issue.2, pp.179-184, 2001.
DOI : 10.1002/(SICI)1099-1050(199705)6:3<229::AID-HEC268>3.0.CO;2-M

A. Briggs, C. Mooney, and D. Wonderling, Constructing confidence intervals for cost-effectiveness ratios: an evaluation of parametric and non-parametric techniques using Monte Carlo simulation, Statistics in Medicine, vol.4, issue.23, pp.3245-3262, 1999.
DOI : 10.1002/hec.4730040502

W. Black, The CE Plane, Medical Decision Making, vol.10, issue.3, pp.212-214, 1990.
DOI : 10.1001/jama.1986.03370060061015

M. Campbell, G. Piaggio, D. Elbourne, D. Altman, and C. Group, Consort 2010 statement: extension to cluster randomised trials, BMJ, vol.345, issue.sep04 1, p.5661, 2012.
DOI : 10.1136/bmj.e5661

D. Averbuch, C. Orasch, C. Cordonnier, D. Livermore, M. Mikulska et al., European guidelines for empirical antibacterial therapy for febrile neutropenic patients in the era of growing resistance: summary of the, 4th European Conference on Infections in Leukemia. Haemato? logica 98, pp.1826-1835, 2011.

R. Peters, M. Van-agtmael, S. Danner, and P. Savelkoul, New developments in the diagnosis of bloodstream infections, The Lancet Infectious Diseases, vol.4, issue.12, pp.751-760, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/S1473-3099(04)01205-8

S. Varani, M. Stanzani, M. Paolucci, F. Melchionda, G. Castellani et al., Diagnosis of bloodstream infections in immunocompromised patients by real-time PCR, Journal of Infection, vol.58, issue.5, pp.346-351, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jinf.2009.03.001

F. Bloos, S. Sachse, A. Kortgen, M. Pletz, M. Lehmann et al., Evaluation of a Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for Pathogen Detection in Septic Patients under Routine Condition: An Observational Study, PLoS ONE, vol.7, issue.9, p.46003, 2013.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0046003.t003

M. Potgieter, J. Bester, D. Kell, and E. Pretorius, The dormant blood microbiome in chronic, inflammatory diseases, FEMS Microbiology Reviews, vol.80, issue.4, pp.567-591, 2015.
DOI : 10.3945/ajcn.110.004564

K. Hall and J. Lyman, Updated Review of Blood Culture Contamination, Clinical Microbiology Reviews, vol.19, issue.4, pp.788-802, 2006.
DOI : 10.1128/CMR.00062-05

, Incidence of severe sepsis and septic shock in German intensive care units: the prospective, multicentre INSEP study, SepNet Critical Care Trials G Intensive Care Med, vol.42, pp.1980-1989, 2016.

M. Bassetti, D. Waele, J. Eggimann, P. Garnacho?montero, J. Kahlmeter et al., Preventive and therapeutic strategies in critically ill patients with highly resistant bacteria, Intensive Care Medicine, vol.254, issue.12, pp.776-795, 2015.
DOI : 10.1097/SLA.0b013e31822ade48

J. Alvarez, J. Mar, E. Varela?ledo, M. Garea, L. Matinez?lamas et al., Cost analysis of real?time polymerase chain reaction microbiological diagnosis in patients with septic shock, Anaesth Intensive Care, vol.40, pp.958-963, 2012.

M. Singer, C. Deutschman, C. Seymour, M. Shankar?hari, D. Annane et al., The Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock (Sepsis-3), JAMA, vol.315, issue.8, pp.801-810, 2016.
DOI : 10.1001/jama.2016.0287

L. Menezes, T. Rocchetti, B. Kde, C. Cappellano, P. Quiles et al., Diagnosis by real-time polymerase chain reaction of pathogens and antimicrobial resistance genes in bone marrow transplant patients with bloodstream infections, BMC Infectious Diseases, vol.48, issue.2, p.166, 2013.
DOI : 10.1128/JCM.01700-09

M. Stevenson, A. Pandor, M. James, M. Rafia, R. Uttley et al., Funding, Health Technology Assessment, vol.20, issue.46, pp.1-246, 2016.
DOI : 10.3310/hta20460

R. Banerjee, C. Teng, S. Cunningham, S. Ihde, J. Steckelberg et al., Randomized Trial of Rapid Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction???Based Blood Culture Identification and Susceptibility Testing, Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol.63, issue.7, pp.1071-1080, 2015.
DOI : 10.1128/JCM.06169-11

URL : http://europepmc.org/articles/pmc4560903?pdf=render