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Uptake of Clostridial Neurotoxins into Cells and Dissemination.

Abstract : Clostridial neurotoxins, botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) and tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT), are potent toxins, which are responsible for severe neurological diseases in man and animals. BoNTs induce a flaccid paralysis (botulism) by inhibiting acetylcholine release at the neuromuscular junctions, whereas TeNT causes a spastic paralysis (tetanus) by blocking the neurotransmitter release (glycine, GABA) in inhibitory interneurons within the central nervous system. Clostridial neurotoxins recognize specific receptor(s) on the target neuronal cells and enter via a receptor-mediated endocytosis. They transit through an acidic compartment which allows the translocation of the catalytic chain into the cytosol, a prerequisite step for the intracellular activity of the neurotoxins. TeNT migrates to the central nervous system by using a motor neuron as transport cell. TeNT enters a neutral pH compartment and undergoes a retrograde axonal transport to the spinal cord or brain, where the whole undissociated toxin is delivered and interacts with target neurons. Botulism most often results from ingestion of food contaminated with BoNT. Thus, BoNT passes through the intestinal epithelial barrier mainly via a transcytotic mechanism and then diffuses or is transported to the neuromuscular junctions by the lymph or blood circulation. Indeed, clostridial neurotoxins are specific neurotoxins which transit through a transport cell to gain access to the target neuron, and use distinct trafficking pathways in both cell types.
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Submitted on : Friday, June 29, 2018 - 4:02:57 PM
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Chloé Connan, Michel Popoff. Uptake of Clostridial Neurotoxins into Cells and Dissemination.. Holger Barth. Uptake and Trafficking of Protein Toxins, 406, Springer, pp.39-78, 2018, Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology, 978-3-319-58891-9. ⟨10.1007/82_2017_50⟩. ⟨pasteur-01826649⟩

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