S. Sayeed, F. Uzal, D. Fisher, J. Saputo, and J. Vidal, Beta toxin is essential for the intestinal virulence of Clostridium perfringens type C disease isolate CN3685 in a rabbit ileal loop model, Molecular Microbiology, vol.12, issue.1, pp.15-30, 2008.
DOI : 10.1128/9781555816513.ch55

F. Uzal and B. Mcclane, Recent progress in understanding the pathogenesis of Clostridium perfringens type C infections, Veterinary Microbiology, vol.153, issue.1-2, pp.37-43, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.vetmic.2011.02.048

S. Hunter, J. Brown, P. Oyston, J. Sakurai, and R. Titball, Molecular genetic analysis of beta-toxin of Clostridium perfringens reveals sequence homology with alpha-toxin, gamma-toxin, and leukocidin of Staphylococcus aureus, Infect Immun, vol.61, pp.3958-3965, 1993.

M. Nagahama, S. Hayashi, S. Morimitsu, and J. Sakurai, Beta Toxin in HL 60 Cells, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.203, issue.38, pp.36934-36941, 2003.
DOI : 10.1074/jbc.274.38.27274

O. Shatursky, R. Bayles, M. Rogers, B. Jost, and J. Songer, Clostridium perfringens Beta-Toxin Forms Potential-Dependent, Cation-Selective Channels in Lipid Bilayers, Infection and Immunity, vol.68, issue.10, pp.5546-5551, 2000.
DOI : 10.1128/IAI.68.10.5546-5551.2000

URL : http://iai.asm.org/content/68/10/5546.full.pdf

M. Popoff and P. Bouvet, Clostridial toxins, Future Microbiology, vol.274, issue.8, pp.1021-1064, 2009.
DOI : 10.1074/jbc.274.16.11046

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00105901

M. Manich, O. Knapp, M. Gibert, E. Maier, and C. Jolivet-reynaud, Clostridium perfringens Delta Toxin Is Sequence Related to Beta Toxin, NetB, and Staphylococcus Pore-Forming Toxins, but Shows Functional Differences, PLoS ONE, vol.162, issue.11, p.3764, 2008.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0003764.s001

URL : https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0003764

V. Steinthorsdottir, H. Halldorsson, and O. Andresson, Clostridium perfringens beta-toxin forms multimeric transmembrane pores in human endothelial cells, Microbial Pathogenesis, vol.28, issue.1, pp.45-50, 2000.
DOI : 10.1006/mpat.1999.0323

C. Gurtner, F. Popescu, M. Wyder, E. Sutter, and F. Zeeh, Rapid Cytopathic Effects of Clostridium perfringens Beta-Toxin on Porcine Endothelial Cells, Infection and Immunity, vol.78, issue.7, pp.2966-2973, 2010.
DOI : 10.1128/IAI.01284-09

URL : http://iai.asm.org/content/78/7/2966.full.pdf

F. Popescu, M. Wyder, C. Gurtner, J. Frey, and R. Cooke, Susceptibility of primary human endothelial cells to C. perfringens beta-toxin suggesting similar pathogenesis in human and porcine necrotizing enteritis, Veterinary Microbiology, vol.153, issue.1-2, pp.173-177, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.vetmic.2011.02.017

J. Miclard, M. Jaggi, E. Sutter, M. Wyder, and B. Grabscheid, Clostridium perfringens beta-toxin targets endothelial cells in necrotizing enteritis in piglets, Veterinary Microbiology, vol.137, issue.3-4, pp.320-325, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.vetmic.2009.01.025

J. Miclard, J. Van-baarlen, M. Wyder, B. Grabscheid, and H. Posthaus, Clostridium perfringens ??-toxin binding to vascular endothelial cells in a human case of enteritis necroticans, Journal of Medical Microbiology, vol.76, issue.10, pp.826-828, 2009.
DOI : 10.1128/IAI.00547-08

URL : http://jmm.microbiologyresearch.org/deliver/fulltext/jmm/58/6/826.pdf?itemId=/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.008060-0&mimeType=pdf&isFastTrackArticle=

V. Schumacher, A. Martel, F. Pasmans, F. Immerseel, and H. Posthaus, Endothelial Binding of Beta Toxin to Small Intestinal Mucosal Endothelial Cells in Early Stages of Experimentally Induced Clostridium Perfringens Type C Enteritis in Pigs, Veterinary Pathology, vol.9, issue.4, 2013.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0023871

M. Gonzalez, M. Bischofberger, L. Pernot, F. Van-der-goot, and B. Freche, Bacterial pore-forming toxins: The (w)hole story?, Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, vol.65, issue.3, pp.493-507, 2008.
DOI : 10.1007/s00018-007-7434-y

M. Bischofberger, M. Gonzalez, and F. Van-der-goot, Membrane injury by pore-forming proteins, Current Opinion in Cell Biology, vol.21, issue.4, pp.589-595, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ceb.2009.04.003

C. Kennedy, D. Smith, D. Lyras, A. Chakravorty, and J. Rood, Programmed Cellular Necrosis Mediated by the Pore-Forming ??-Toxin from Clostridium septicum, PLoS Pathogens, vol.134, issue.7, p.1000516, 2009.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000516.g007

URL : https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1000516

L. Duprez, E. Wirawan, V. Berghe, T. Vandenabeele, and P. , Major cell death pathways at a glance, Microbes and Infection, vol.11, issue.13, pp.1050-1062, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.micinf.2009.08.013

D. Krysko, V. Berghe, T. , D. Herde, K. Vandenabeele et al., Apoptosis and necrosis: Detection, discrimination and phagocytosis, Methods, vol.44, issue.3, pp.205-221, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ymeth.2007.12.001

D. Christofferson and J. Yuan, Necroptosis as an alternative form of programmed cell death, Current Opinion in Cell Biology, vol.22, issue.2, pp.263-268, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ceb.2009.12.003

URL : http://europepmc.org/articles/pmc2854308?pdf=render

O. Knapp, E. Maier, S. Mkaddem, R. Benz, and M. Bens, Clostridium septicum alpha-toxin forms pores and induces rapid cell necrosis, Toxicon, vol.55, issue.1, pp.61-72, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.toxicon.2009.06.037

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-01509604

J. Radin, C. Gonzalez-rivera, S. Ivie, M. Mcclain, and T. Cover, ABSTRACT, Infection and Immunity, vol.79, issue.7, pp.2535-2543, 2011.
DOI : 10.1128/IAI.01370-10

F. Essmann, H. Bantel, G. Totzke, I. Engels, and B. Sinha, Staphylococcus aureus ??-toxin-induced cell death: predominant necrosis despite apoptotic caspase activation, Cell Death & Differentiation, vol.13, issue.11, pp.1260-1272, 2003.
DOI : 10.1128/MCB.16.10.5245

URL : http://www.nature.com/cdd/journal/v10/n11/pdf/4401301a.pdf

M. Gonzalez, M. Bischofberger, B. Freche, S. Ho, and R. Parton, Pore-forming toxins induce multiple cellular responses promoting survival, Cellular Microbiology, vol.13, issue.7, pp.1026-1043, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.mib.2010.04.004

URL : http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1462-5822.2011.01600.x/pdf

J. Ernst, L. Yang, J. Rosales, and V. Broaddus, Preparation and Characterization of an Endogenously Fluorescent Annexin for Detection of Apoptotic Cells, Analytical Biochemistry, vol.260, issue.1, pp.18-23, 1998.
DOI : 10.1006/abio.1998.2677

M. Van-engeland, F. Ramaekers, B. Schutte, and C. Reutelingsperger, A novel assay to measure loss of plasma membrane asymmetry during apoptosis of adherent cells in culture, Cytometry, vol.24, issue.2, pp.131-139, 1996.
DOI : 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0320(19960601)24:2<131::AID-CYTO5>3.0.CO;2-M

J. Kabir, M. Lobo, and Z. I. , Staurosporine induces endothelial cell apoptosis via focal adhesion kinase dephosphorylation and focal adhesion disassembly independent of focal adhesion kinase proteolysis, Biochemical Journal, vol.367, issue.1, pp.145-155, 2002.
DOI : 10.1042/bj20020665

W. Zong and C. Thompson, Necrotic death as a cell fate, Genes & Development, vol.20, issue.1, pp.1-15, 2006.
DOI : 10.1101/gad.1376506

URL : http://genesdev.cshlp.org/content/20/1/1.full.pdf

A. Degterev, Z. Huang, M. Boyce, Y. Li, and P. Jagtap, Chemical inhibitor of nonapoptotic cell death with therapeutic potential for ischemic brain injury, Nature Chemical Biology, vol.57, issue.2, pp.112-119, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/S0896-6273(03)00601-9

M. Bischofberger, I. Iacovache, and F. Van-der-goot, Pathogenic Pore-Forming Proteins: Function and Host Response, Cell Host & Microbe, vol.12, issue.3, pp.266-275, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.chom.2012.08.005

URL : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2012.08.005

D. Vercammen, R. Beyaert, G. Denecker, V. Goossens, V. Loo et al., Inhibition of Caspases Increases the Sensitivity of L929 Cells to Necrosis Mediated by Tumor Necrosis Factor, The Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol.388, issue.9, pp.1477-1485, 1998.
DOI : 10.1016/S0167-5273(96)02854-9

A. Degterev, J. Hitomi, M. Germscheid, I. Ch-'en, and O. Korkina, Identification of RIP1 kinase as a specific cellular target of necrostatins, Nature Chemical Biology, vol.4, issue.5, pp.313-321, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.bbagen.2006.11.011

URL : http://europepmc.org/articles/pmc5434866?pdf=render

Y. Cho, S. Challa, D. Moquin, R. Genga, and T. Ray, Phosphorylation-Driven Assembly of the RIP1-RIP3 Complex Regulates Programmed Necrosis and Virus-Induced Inflammation, Cell, vol.137, issue.6, pp.1112-1123, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cell.2009.05.037

URL : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2009.05.037

Y. Cho, T. Mcquade, H. Zhang, J. Zhang, and F. Chan, RIP1-Dependent and Independent Effects of Necrostatin-1 in Necrosis and T Cell Activation, PLoS ONE, vol.102, issue.8, p.23209, 2011.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0023209.g006

URL : https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023209

K. Krause, M. Fivaz, A. Monod, and F. Van-der-goot, Release from Intracellular Stores in Human Granulocytes, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.257, issue.29, pp.18122-18129, 1998.
DOI : 10.1016/0165-6147(90)90179-C

D. Jonas, B. Schultheis, C. Klas, P. Krammer, and S. Bhakdi, Cytocidal effects of Escherichia coli hemolysin on human T lymphocytes, Infect Immun, vol.61, pp.1715-1721, 1993.

S. Challa and F. Chan, Going up in flames: necrotic cell injury and inflammatory diseases, Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, vol.21, issue.19, pp.3241-3253, 2010.
DOI : 10.4049/jimmunol.177.6.3814

URL : http://europepmc.org/articles/pmc3051829?pdf=render

M. Jäggi, N. Wollschlager, C. Abril, S. Albini, and C. Brachelente, Retrospective study on necrotizing enteritis in piglets in Switzerland, Schweizer Archiv f??r Tierheilkunde, vol.151, issue.8, pp.369-375, 2009.
DOI : 10.1024/0036-7281.151.8.369