H. Barth, K. Aktories, M. Popoff, and B. Stiles, Binary Bacterial Toxins: Biochemistry, Biology, and Applications of Common Clostridium and Bacillus Proteins, Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, vol.68, issue.3, pp.373-402, 2004.
DOI : 10.1128/MMBR.68.3.373-402.2004

URL : http://mmbr.asm.org/content/68/3/373.full.pdf

R. Collier and J. Young, Anthrax Toxin, Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology, vol.19, issue.1, pp.45-70, 2003.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev.cellbio.19.111301.140655

J. Young and R. Collier, Anthrax Toxin: Receptor Binding, Internalization, Pore Formation, and Translocation, Annual Review of Biochemistry, vol.76, issue.1, pp.243-265, 2007.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev.biochem.75.103004.142728

B. Turk, Manipulation of host signalling pathways by anthrax toxins, Biochemical Journal, vol.402, issue.3, pp.405-417, 2007.
DOI : 10.1042/BJ20061891

URL : http://www.biochemj.org/content/ppbiochemj/402/3/405.full.pdf

M. Rolando, C. Stefani, G. Flatau, P. Auberger, and A. Mettouchi, Transcriptome dysregulation by anthrax lethal toxin plays a key role in induction of human endothelial cell cytotoxicity, Cellular Microbiology, vol.39, issue.21, pp.891-905, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/S0002-9440(10)62496-0

M. Mock and A. Fouet, Anthrax, Annual Review of Microbiology, vol.55, issue.1, pp.647-671, 2001.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev.micro.55.1.647

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00083712

C. Petosa, R. Collier, K. Klimpel, S. Leppla, and R. Liddington, Crystal structure of the anthrax toxin protective antigen, Nature, vol.385, issue.6619, pp.833-838, 1997.
DOI : 10.1038/385833a0

L. Abrami, M. Lindsay, R. Parton, S. Leppla, and F. Van-der-goot, Membrane insertion of anthrax protective antigen and cytoplasmic delivery of lethal factor occur at different stages of the endocytic pathway, The Journal of Cell Biology, vol.268, issue.5, pp.645-651, 2004.
DOI : 10.1083/jcb.152.4.765

L. Abrami, N. Reig, and F. Van-der-goot, Anthrax toxin: the long and winding road that leads to the kill, Trends in Microbiology, vol.13, issue.2, pp.72-78, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.tim.2004.12.004

G. Feld, K. Thoren, A. Kintzer, H. Sterling, and I. Tang, Structural basis for the unfolding of anthrax lethal factor by protective antigen oligomers, Nature Structural & Molecular Biology, vol.276, issue.11, pp.1383-1390, 2010.
DOI : 10.1021/bi015860m

URL : https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3133606

K. Aktories and H. Barth, The actin-ADP-ribosylating Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin, Anaerobe, vol.10, issue.2, pp.101-105, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2003.10.003

K. Aktories, C. Wilde, and M. Vogelsgesang, Rho-modifying C3-like ADPribosyltransferases, Rev Physiol Biochem Pharmacol, vol.152, pp.1-22, 2004.
DOI : 10.1007/s10254-004-0034-4

P. Boquet and E. Lemichez, Bacterial virulence factors targeting Rho GTPases: parasitism or symbiosis?, Trends in Cell Biology, vol.13, issue.5, pp.238-246, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0962-8924(03)00037-0

H. Barth, D. Blocker, J. Behlke, W. Bergsma-schutter, and A. Brisson, C2 Toxin Requires Oligomerization and Acidification, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.266, issue.25, pp.18704-18711, 2000.
DOI : 10.1038/385833a0

URL : http://www.jbc.org/content/275/25/18704.full.pdf

D. Blocker, H. Barth, E. Maier, R. Benz, and J. Barbieri, The C Terminus of Component C2II of Clostridium botulinum C2 Toxin Is Essential for Receptor Binding, Infection and Immunity, vol.68, issue.8, pp.4566-4573, 2000.
DOI : 10.1128/IAI.68.8.4566-4573.2000

D. Blocker, K. Pohlmann, G. Haug, C. Bachmeyer, and R. Benz, C2 Toxin, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.10, issue.39, pp.37360-37367, 2003.
DOI : 10.1074/jbc.M303980200

R. Considine and L. Simpson, Cellular and molecular actions of binary toxins possessing ADP-ribosyltransferase activity, Toxicon, vol.29, issue.8, pp.913-936, 1991.
DOI : 10.1016/0041-0101(91)90076-4

T. Neumeyer, F. Tonello, F. Dal-molin, B. Schiffler, and R. Benz, Anthrax Edema Factor, Voltage-dependent Binding to the Protective Antigen Ion Channel and Comparison to LF Binding, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.51, issue.43, pp.32335-32343, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.it.2006.07.002

URL : http://www.jbc.org/content/281/43/32335.full.pdf

C. Schleberger, H. Hochmann, H. Barth, K. Aktories, and G. Schulz, Structure and Action of the Binary C2 Toxin from Clostridium botulinum, Journal of Molecular Biology, vol.364, issue.4, pp.705-715, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jmb.2006.09.002

B. Krantz, R. Melnyk, S. Zhang, S. Juris, and D. Lacy, A Phenylalanine Clamp Catalyzes Protein Translocation Through the Anthrax Toxin Pore, Science, vol.309, issue.5735, pp.777-781, 2005.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1113380

URL : http://europepmc.org/articles/pmc1815389?pdf=render

R. Melnyk and R. Collier, A loop network within the anthrax toxin pore positions the phenylalanine clamp in an active conformation, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.194, issue.10, pp.9802-9807, 2006.
DOI : 10.1038/194979a0

URL : http://www.pnas.org/content/103/26/9802.full.pdf

B. Krantz, A. Finkelstein, and R. Collier, Protein Translocation through the Anthrax Toxin Transmembrane Pore is Driven by a Proton Gradient, Journal of Molecular Biology, vol.355, issue.5, pp.968-979, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jmb.2005.11.030

B. Krantz, A. Trivedi, K. Cunningham, K. Christensen, and R. Collier, Acid-induced Unfolding of the Amino-terminal Domains of the Lethal and Edema Factors of Anthrax Toxin, Journal of Molecular Biology, vol.344, issue.3, pp.739-756, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jmb.2004.09.067

S. Zhang, A. Finkelstein, and R. Collier, Evidence that translocation of anthrax toxin's lethal factor is initiated by entry of its N terminus into the protective antigen channel, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.160, issue.7, pp.16756-16761, 2004.
DOI : 10.1083/jcb.200210028

K. Halverson, R. Panchal, T. Nguyen, R. Gussio, and S. Little, Anthrax Biosensor, Protective Antigen Ion Channel Asymmetric Blockade, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.266, issue.40, pp.34056-34062, 2005.
DOI : 10.1038/n35101998

URL : http://www.jbc.org/content/280/40/34056.full.pdf

W. Wei, Q. Lu, G. Chaudry, S. Leppla, and S. Cohen, The LDL Receptor-Related Protein LRP6 Mediates Internalization and Lethality of Anthrax Toxin, Cell, vol.124, issue.6, pp.1141-1154, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cell.2005.12.045

URL : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2005.12.045

S. Leppla, N. Arora, and M. Varughese, Anthrax toxin fusion proteins for intracellular delivery of macromolecules, Journal of Applied Microbiology, vol.4, issue.2, p.284, 1999.
DOI : 10.1038/385833a0

URL : http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1365-2672.1999.00890.x/pdf

M. Rolando, P. Munro, C. Stefani, P. Auberger, and G. Flatau, Injection of Staphylococcus aureus EDIN by the Bacillus anthracis Protective Antigen Machinery Induces Vascular Permeability, Infection and Immunity, vol.77, issue.9, pp.3596-3601, 2009.
DOI : 10.1128/IAI.00186-09

A. Doye, L. Boyer, A. Mettouchi, and E. Lemichez, Ubiquitin???Mediated Proteasomal Degradation of Rho Proteins by the CNF1 Toxin, Methods Enzymol, vol.406, pp.447-456, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/S0076-6879(06)06033-2

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00000096

R. Benz, K. Janko, W. Boos, and P. Lauger, Formation of large, ion-permeable membrane channels by the matrix protein (porin) of Escherichia coli, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Biomembranes, vol.511, issue.3, pp.305-319, 1978.
DOI : 10.1016/0005-2736(78)90269-9

C. Bachmeyer, F. Orlik, H. Barth, K. Aktories, and R. Benz, Mechanism of C2-toxin Inhibition by Fluphenazine and Related Compounds: Investigation of their Binding Kinetics to the C2II-channel using the Current Noise Analysis, Journal of Molecular Biology, vol.333, issue.3, pp.527-540, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jmb.2003.08.044

F. Orlik, B. Schiffler, and R. Benz, Anthrax Toxin Protective Antigen: Inhibition of Channel Function by Chloroquine and Related Compounds and Study of Binding Kinetics Using the Current Noise Analysis, Biophysical Journal, vol.88, issue.3, pp.1715-1724, 2005.
DOI : 10.1529/biophysj.104.050336

R. Benz, A. Schmid, and G. Vos-scheperkeuter, Mechanism of sugar transport through the sugar-specific LamB channel ofEscherichia coli outer membrane, The Journal of Membrane Biology, vol.159, issue.1, pp.21-29, 1987.
DOI : 10.1016/0304-4157(73)90011-7

R. Benz, A. Schmid, T. Nakae, and G. Vos-scheperkeuter, Pore formation by LamB of Escherichia coli in lipid bilayer membranes., Journal of Bacteriology, vol.165, issue.3, pp.978-986, 1986.
DOI : 10.1128/jb.165.3.978-986.1986

F. Dal-molin, F. Tonello, D. Ladant, I. Zornetta, and I. Zamparo, Cell entry and cAMP imaging of anthrax edema toxin, The EMBO Journal, vol.124, issue.22, pp.5405-5413, 2006.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1068539

S. Han, J. Craig, C. Putnam, N. Carozzi, and J. Tainer, Evolution and mechanism from structures of an ADP-ribosylating toxin and NAD complex, Nat Struct Biol, vol.6, pp.932-936, 1999.

A. Pannifer, T. Wong, R. Schwarzenbacher, M. Renatus, and C. Petosa, Crystal structure of the anthrax lethal factor, Nature, vol.50, issue.6860, pp.229-233, 2001.
DOI : 10.1107/S0907444994006396

Y. Shen, N. Zhukovskaya, Q. Guo, F. J. Tang, and W. , Calcium-independent calmodulin binding and two-metal???ion catalytic mechanism of anthrax edema factor, The EMBO Journal, vol.266, issue.5, pp.929-941, 2005.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.95.23.13899

URL : http://embojnl.embopress.org/content/embojnl/24/5/929.full.pdf

M. Leuber, A. Kronhardt, F. Tonello, F. Dal-molin, and R. Benz, Binding of N-terminal fragments of anthrax edema factor (EFN) and lethal factor (LFN) to the protective antigen pore, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Biomembranes, vol.1778, issue.6, pp.1436-1443, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.bbamem.2008.01.007

H. Barth, D. Blocker, and K. Aktories, The uptake machinery of clostridial actin ADP-ribosylating toxins - a cell delivery system for fusion proteins and polypeptide drugs, Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology, vol.366, issue.6, pp.501-512, 2002.
DOI : 10.1007/s00210-002-0626-y

H. Barth, R. Roebling, M. Fritz, and K. Aktories, C2 Toxin as a Protein Delivery System, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.268, issue.7, pp.5074-5081, 2002.
DOI : 10.1128/IAI.69.10.6532-6536.2001

URL : http://www.jbc.org/content/277/7/5074.full.pdf

K. Cunningham, D. Lacy, J. Mogridge, and R. Collier, Mapping the lethal factor and edema factor binding sites on oligomeric anthrax protective antigen, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.50, issue.Pt 6, pp.7049-7053, 2002.
DOI : 10.1107/S0907444994006396

URL : http://www.pnas.org/content/99/10/7049.full.pdf

D. Lacy, H. Lin, R. Melnyk, O. Schueler-furman, and L. Reither, A model of anthrax toxin lethal factor bound to protective antigen, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.101, issue.36, pp.16409-16414, 2005.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.0405405101

URL : http://www.pnas.org/content/102/45/16409.full.pdf

T. Neumeyer, B. Schiffler, E. Maier, A. Lang, and K. Aktories, C2 Toxin, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.100, issue.7, pp.3904-3914, 2008.
DOI : 10.1021/bi051830y

R. Blaustein, E. Lea, and A. Finkelstein, Voltage-dependent block of anthrax toxin channels in planar phospholipid bilayer membranes by symmetric tetraalkylammonium ions. Single-channel analysis, The Journal of General Physiology, vol.96, issue.5, pp.921-942, 1990.
DOI : 10.1085/jgp.96.5.921

URL : http://jgp.rupress.org/content/jgp/96/5/921.full.pdf

A. Finkelstein, The channel formed in planar lipid bilayers by the protective antigen component of anthrax toxin, Toxicology, vol.87, issue.1-3, pp.29-41, 1994.
DOI : 10.1016/0300-483X(94)90153-8

R. Benz, K. Janko, and P. Lauger, Ionic selectivity of pores formed by the matrix protein (porin) of Escherichia coli, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Biomembranes, vol.551, issue.2, pp.238-247, 1979.
DOI : 10.1016/0005-2736(89)90002-3

R. Blaustein, T. Koehler, R. Collier, and A. Finkelstein, Anthrax toxin: channel-forming activity of protective antigen in planar phospholipid bilayers., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.86, issue.7, pp.2209-2213, 1989.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.86.7.2209

URL : http://www.pnas.org/content/86/7/2209.full.pdf

A. Schmid, R. Benz, I. Just, and K. Aktories, Interaction of Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin with lipid bilayer membranes. Formation of cation-selective channels and inhibition of channel function by chloroquine, J Biol Chem, vol.269, pp.16706-16711, 1994.

T. Nguyen, Three-dimensional Model of the Pore Form of Anthrax Protective Antigen. Structure and Biological Implications, Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics, vol.89, issue.3, pp.253-265, 2004.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.89.17.7934

E. Santelli, L. Bankston, S. Leppla, and R. Liddington, Crystal structure of a complex between anthrax toxin and its host cell receptor, Nature, vol.50, issue.7002, pp.905-908, 2004.
DOI : 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0282(199603)38:3<305::AID-BIP4>3.3.CO;2-8

G. Haug, J. Leemhuis, D. Tiemann, D. Meyer, and K. Aktories, C2 Toxin into the Cytosol, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.269, issue.34, pp.32266-32274, 2003.
DOI : 10.1083/jcb.200210028