J. Morgan, K. Wannemuehler, K. Marr, S. Hadley, and D. Kontoyiannis, Incidence of invasive aspergillosis following hematopoietic stem cell and solid organ transplantation: interim results of a prospective multicenter surveillance program, Medical Mycology, vol.37, issue.3, pp.49-58, 2005.
DOI : 10.1086/377210

N. Singh and D. Paterson, Aspergillus Infections in Transplant Recipients, Clinical Microbiology Reviews, vol.18, issue.1, pp.44-69, 2005.
DOI : 10.1128/CMR.18.1.44-69.2005

URL : http://cmr.asm.org/content/18/1/44.full.pdf

A. Brakhage, S. Bruns, A. Thywissen, P. Zipfel, and J. Behnsen, Interaction of phagocytes with filamentous fungi, Current Opinion in Microbiology, vol.13, issue.4, pp.409-415, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.mib.2010.04.009

S. Bozza, C. Clavaud, G. Giovannini, T. Fontaine, and A. Beauvais, Immune Sensing of Aspergillus fumigatus Proteins, Glycolipids, and Polysaccharides and the Impact on Th Immunity and Vaccination, The Journal of Immunology, vol.183, issue.4, pp.2407-2414, 2009.
DOI : 10.4049/jimmunol.0900961

I. Mouyna and T. Fontaine, Cell Wall of Aspergillus fumigatus: a Dynamic Structure, pp.169-183, 2009.
DOI : 10.1128/9781555815523.ch14

M. Netea, G. Brown, B. Kullberg, and N. Gow, An integrated model of the recognition of Candida albicans by the innate immune system, Nature Reviews Microbiology, vol.447, issue.1, pp.67-78, 2008.
DOI : 10.4049/jimmunol.179.9.5999

L. Romani and P. Puccetti, Immune Regulation and Tolerance to Fungi in the Lungs and Skin, Chem Immunol Allergy, vol.94, pp.124-137, 2008.
DOI : 10.1159/000154957

L. Rizzetto and D. Cavalieri, A systems biology approach to the mutual interaction between yeast and the immune system, Immunobiology, vol.215, issue.9-10, pp.762-769, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.imbio.2010.05.009

O. Zaragoza, M. Rodrigues, D. Jesus, M. Frases, S. Dadachova et al., Chapter 4 The Capsule of the Fungal Pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans, Adv Appl Microbiol, vol.68, pp.133-216, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/S0065-2164(09)01204-0

A. Beauvais, C. Schmidt, S. Guadagnini, P. Roux, and E. Perret, An extracellular matrix glues together the aerial-grown hyphae of Aspergillus fumigatus, Cellular Microbiology, vol.15, issue.6, pp.1588-1600, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/S0960-9822(99)80019-0

J. Latge, H. Kobayashi, J. Debeaupuis, M. Diaquin, and J. Sarfati, Chemical and immunological characterization of the extracellular galactomannan of Aspergillus fumigatus, Infect Immun, vol.62, pp.5424-5433, 1994.

T. Fontaine, C. Simenel, G. Dubreucq, O. Adam, and M. Delepierre, Molecular organization of the alkali-insoluble fraction of Aspergillus fumigatus cell wall, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.275, pp.27594-27607, 2000.
DOI : 10.1074/jbc.M909975199

E. Vinogradov and K. Bock, The structure of the core part of Proteus vulgaris OX2 lipopolysaccharide, Carbohydrate Research, vol.320, issue.3-4, pp.239-243, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S0008-6215(99)00181-0

S. Francois, E. Benna, J. Dang, P. Pedruzzi, E. Gougerot-pocidalo et al., Inhibition of Neutrophil Apoptosis by TLR Agonists in Whole Blood: Involvement of the Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase/Akt and NF-??B Signaling Pathways, Leading to Increased Levels of Mcl-1, A1, and Phosphorylated Bad, The Journal of Immunology, vol.174, issue.6, pp.3633-3642, 2005.
DOI : 10.4049/jimmunol.174.6.3633

J. Distler and S. Roseman, Galactosamine polymers produced by Aspergillus parasiticus, J Biol Chem, vol.235, pp.2538-2541, 1960.

J. Reissig and J. Glasgow, Mucopolysaccharide which regulates growth in Neurospora, J Bacteriol, vol.106, pp.882-889, 1971.

P. Bardalaye and J. Nordin, Galactosaminogalactan from cell walls of Aspergillus niger, J Bacteriol, vol.125, pp.655-669, 1976.

P. Ruperez and J. Leal, Extracellular galactosaminogalactan from Aspergillus parasiticus, Transactions of the British Mycological Society, vol.77, issue.3, pp.621-625, 1981.
DOI : 10.1016/S0007-1536(81)80111-8

H. Takada, Y. Araki, and E. Ito, Structure of polygalactosamine produced by Aspergillus parasiticus, J Biochem, vol.89, pp.1265-1274, 1981.

C. Guerrero, A. Prieto, and J. Leal, Extracellular galactosaminogalactan from Penicillium frequentans, Microbiologia, vol.4, pp.39-46, 1988.

H. Scheller and P. Ulvskov, Hemicelluloses, Annual Review of Plant Biology, vol.61, issue.1, pp.263-289, 2010.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev-arplant-042809-112315

G. Dutton and A. Savage, Structural investigation of the capsular polysaccharide of klebsiella serotype K12, Carbohydrate Research, vol.83, issue.2, pp.351-362, 1980.
DOI : 10.1016/S0008-6215(00)84547-4

P. Schneider, A. Treumann, K. Milne, M. Mcconville, and N. Zitzmann, Structural studies on a lipoarabinogalactan of Crithidia fasciculata, Biochem J, pp.313-963, 1996.

O. Kol, J. Wieruszeski, G. Strecker, B. Fournet, and R. Zalisz, Structure of the O-specific polysaccharide chain of Klebsiella pneumoniae O1K2 (NCTC 5055) lipopolysaccharide. A complementary elucidation, Carbohydrate Research, vol.236, pp.339-344, 1992.
DOI : 10.1016/0008-6215(92)85028-X

S. Moody, E. Handman, M. Mcconville, and A. Bacic, The structure of Leishmania major amastigote lipophosphoglycan, J Biol Chem, vol.268, pp.18457-18466, 1993.

J. Leal, A. Prieto, M. Bernabe, and D. Hawksworth, An assessment of fungal wall heteromannans as a phylogenetically informative character in ascomycetes, FEMS Microbiology Reviews, vol.9, issue.(suppl 1), pp.986-1014, 2010.
DOI : 10.1017/S0953756201005354

V. Letscher-bru, A. Cavalier, E. Pernot-marino, H. Koenig, and D. Eyer, Aspergillus galactomannan antigen detection with Platelia-Aspergillus: multiple positive antigemia without Aspergillus infection, J Mycol Med, vol.8, pp.112-113, 1998.

J. Gangneux, D. Lavarde, S. Bretagne, C. Guiguen, and V. Gandemer, Transient aspergillus antigenaemia: think of milk, The Lancet, vol.359, issue.9313, p.1251, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0140-6736(02)08238-7

C. Szymanski, D. Burr, and P. Guerry, Campylobacter Protein Glycosylation Affects Host Cell Interactions, Infection and Immunity, vol.70, issue.4, pp.2242-2244, 2002.
DOI : 10.1128/IAI.70.4.2242-2244.2002

URL : http://iai.asm.org/content/70/4/2242.full.pdf

A. Karlyshev, P. Everest, D. Linton, S. Cawthraw, and D. Newell, The Campylobacter jejuni general glycosylation system is important for attachment to human epithelial cells and in the colonization of chicks, Microbiology, vol.150, issue.6, pp.1957-1964, 2004.
DOI : 10.1099/mic.0.26721-0

T. Geijtenbeek and S. Gringhuis, Signalling through C-type lectin receptors: shaping immune responses, Nature Reviews Immunology, vol.16, issue.7, pp.465-479, 2009.
DOI : 10.1172/JCI200419655

F. Van-de-veerdonk, B. Kullberg, J. Van-der-meer, N. Gow, and M. Netea, Host???microbe interactions: innate pattern recognition of fungal pathogens, Current Opinion in Microbiology, vol.11, issue.4, pp.305-312, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.mib.2008.06.002

E. Pericolini, E. Cenci, C. Monari, D. Jesus, M. Bistoni et al., Cryptococcus neoformans capsular polysaccharide component galactoxylomannan induces apoptosis of human T-cells through activation of caspase-8, Cellular Microbiology, vol.11, issue.2, pp.267-275, 2006.
DOI : 10.1093/glycob/10.2.131

S. Villena, R. Pinheiro, C. Pinheiro, M. Nunes, and C. Takiya, Capsular polysaccharides galactoxylomannan and glucuronoxylomannan from Cryptococcus neoformans induce macrophage apoptosis mediated by Fas ligand, Cellular Microbiology, vol.153, issue.6, pp.1274-1285, 2008.
DOI : 10.1038/15260

URL : http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1462-5822.2008.01125.x/pdf

K. Luther, A. Torosantucci, A. Brakhage, J. Heesemann, and F. Ebel, Phagocytosis of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia by murine macrophages involves recognition by the dectin-1 beta-glucan receptor and Toll-like receptor 2, Cellular Microbiology, vol.173, issue.2, pp.368-381, 2007.
DOI : 10.1038/86354

T. Toyotome, Y. Adachi, A. Watanabe, E. Ochiai, and N. Ohno, Activator protein 1 is triggered by Aspergillus fumigatus ??-glucans surface-exposed during specific growth stages, Microbial Pathogenesis, vol.44, issue.2, pp.141-150, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.micpath.2007.08.015

S. Van-vliet, E. Van-liempt, E. Saeland, C. Aarnoudse, and B. Appelmelk, Carbohydrate profiling reveals a distinctive role for the C-type lectin MGL in the recognition of helminth parasites and tumor antigens by dendritic cells, International Immunology, vol.17, issue.5, pp.661-669, 2005.
DOI : 10.1084/jem.20031865

S. Van-vliet, L. Steeghs, S. Bruijns, M. Vaezirad, S. Blok et al., Variation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Lipooligosaccharide Directs Dendritic Cell???Induced T Helper Responses, PLoS Pathogens, vol.277, issue.10, p.1000625, 2009.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000625.s002

N. Van-sorge, N. Bleumink, S. Van-vliet, E. Saeland, and W. Van-der-pol, target the human C-type lectin receptor MGL, Cellular Microbiology, vol.277, issue.12, pp.1768-1781, 2009.
DOI : 10.4049/jimmunol.181.5.3148

B. Cobb, Q. Wang, A. Tzianabos, and D. Kasper, Polysaccharide Processing and Presentation by the MHCII Pathway, Cell, vol.117, issue.5, pp.677-687, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cell.2004.05.001

URL : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2004.05.001

M. Dubois, K. Gilles, J. Hamilton, P. Rebers, and F. Smith, Colorimetric Method for Determination of Sugars and Related Substances, Analytical Chemistry, vol.28, issue.3, pp.350-356, 1956.
DOI : 10.1021/ac60111a017

A. Johnson, Improved method of hexosamine determination, Analytical Biochemistry, vol.44, issue.2, pp.628-635, 1971.
DOI : 10.1016/0003-2697(71)90252-1

J. Sawardeker, J. Sloneker, and A. Jeanes, Quantitative Determination of Monosaccharides as Their Alditol Acetates by Gas Liquid Chromatography., Analytical Chemistry, vol.37, issue.12, pp.1602-1604, 1965.
DOI : 10.1021/ac60231a048

T. Fontaine, F. Talmont, G. Dutton, and B. Fournet, Analysis of pyruvic acid acetal containing polysaccharides by methanolysis and reductive cleavage methods, Analytical Biochemistry, vol.199, issue.2, pp.154-161, 1991.
DOI : 10.1016/0003-2697(91)90083-6

I. Ciucanu and F. Kerek, A simple and rapid method for the permethylation of carbohydrates, Carbohydrate Research, vol.131, issue.2, pp.209-217, 1984.
DOI : 10.1016/0008-6215(84)85242-8

D. Wishart, C. Bigam, J. Yao, F. Abildgaard, and H. Dyson, 1H, 13C and 15N chemical shift referencing in biomolecular NMR, Journal of Biomolecular NMR, vol.6, issue.2, pp.135-140, 1995.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00211777

G. Wagner, Two-dimensional relayed coherence transfer spectroscopy of a protein, Journal of Magnetic Resonance (1969), vol.55, issue.1, pp.151-156, 1983.
DOI : 10.1016/0022-2364(83)90284-6

W. Willker, D. Leibfritz, R. Kerssebaum, and W. Bermel, Gradient selection in inverse heteronuclear correlation spectroscopy, Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry, vol.95, issue.3, pp.287-292, 1993.
DOI : 10.1016/0022-2364(91)90334-P

S. Macura, Y. Huang, D. Suter, and R. Ernst, Two-dimensional chemical exchange and cross-relaxation spectroscopy of coupled nuclear spins, Journal of Magnetic Resonance (1969), vol.43, issue.2, pp.259-281, 1981.
DOI : 10.1016/0022-2364(81)90037-8

URL : http://fuj.physik.uni-dortmund.de/~suter/eprints/1_Exchange_2D.pdf

M. Wacker, D. Linton, P. Hitchen, M. Nita-lazar, and S. Haslam, N-Linked Glycosylation in Campylobacter jejuni and Its Functional Transfer into E. coli, Science, vol.298, issue.5599, pp.1790-1793, 2002.
DOI : 10.1126/science.298.5599.1790

M. Kowarik, N. Young, S. Numao, B. Schulz, and I. Hug, Definition of the bacterial N-glycosylation site consensus sequence, The EMBO Journal, vol.251, issue.9, pp.1957-1966, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.bbagen.2005.07.003

F. Nato, K. Reich, S. Lhopital, S. Rouyre, and C. Geoffroy, Production and characterization of neutralizing and nonneutralizing monoclonal antibodies against listeriolysin O, Infect Immun, vol.59, pp.4641-4646, 1991.

S. Bozza, K. Perruccio, C. Montagnoli, R. Gaziano, and S. Bellocchio, A dendritic cell vaccine against invasive aspergillosis in allogeneic hematopoietic transplantation, Blood, vol.102, issue.10, pp.3807-3814, 2003.
DOI : 10.1182/blood-2003-03-0748

L. Romani, F. Bistoni, K. Perruccio, C. Montagnoli, and R. Gaziano, Thymosin ??1 activates dendritic cell tryptophan catabolism and establishes a regulatory environment for balance of inflammation and tolerance, Blood, vol.108, issue.7, pp.2265-2274, 2006.
DOI : 10.1182/blood-2006-02-004762

T. Zelante, D. Luca, A. Bonifazi, P. Montagnoli, C. Bozza et al., IL-23 and the Th17 pathway promote inflammation and impair antifungal immune resistance, European Journal of Immunology, vol.172, issue.10, pp.2695-2706, 2007.
DOI : 10.4049/jimmunol.172.5.3059

B. Fournet, G. Strecker, Y. Leroy, and J. Montreuil, Gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry of methylated and acetylated methyl glycosides. Application to the structural analysis of glycoprotein glycans, Analytical Biochemistry, vol.116, issue.2, pp.489-502, 1981.
DOI : 10.1016/0003-2697(81)90393-6