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Les émergences d’arboviroses : Chikungunya et zika

Anna-Bella Failloux 1, *
* Corresponding author
Abstract : Numbers of communicable diseases causing 25 % of annual deaths worldwide are vector- borne diseases. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) are among the best studied vector-borne pathogens that have emerged over the last decade. Both arboviruses have spread outside their natural range of distribution in Africa causing several million human cases. Since its emergence in 2005 in the Indian Ocean, CHIKV made a breakthrough in new regions, following the worldwide expansion of the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus. This species has contributed to the selection of a mutation in the viral genome favouring the transmission of CHIKV. Unexpectedly, CHIKV also reached tempe- rate regions such as Europe: local transmission of CHIKV was reported in Italy in 2007 and in France in 2010 and 2014. More recently, from 2007, ZIKV started its global expansion in the Pacific region and then in the Americas causing unusual severe symptoms such as Guillain-Barré syndrome and microcephaly in newborns. Using mosquito experimental infections, we demonstrated that the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus were more competent vectors to CHIKV than to ZIKV, highlighting that other factors facilitating arboviruses establishment should be considered.
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Anna-Bella Failloux. Les émergences d’arboviroses : Chikungunya et zika. Bulletin de l'Académie Nationale de Médecine, Elsevier Masson, 2016, 200 (9), pp.1589-1603. ⟨pasteur-01717538⟩

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