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Aedes albopictus , vecteur des virus du chikungunya et de la dengue à la Réunion : biologie et contrôle

Abstract : Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and dengue virus (DENV) are mosquito-borne viruses transmitted by the Aedes genus. Dengue is considered as the most important arbovirus disease throughout the World. Chikungunya, known from epidemics in continental Africa and Asia, has up to now been poorly studied. It has been recently responsible for the severe 2004-2007 epidemic reported in the Indian Ocean (IO), which has caused several serious health and economic problems. This unprecedented epidemic of the IO has shown severe health troubles with morbidity and death associated, which had never been observed before. The two major vectors of those arboviruses in the IO area are Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. The latest is considered as the main vector in most of the islands of the area, especially in Reunion Island. Ae. albopictus showed strong ecological plasticity. Small disposable containers were the principal urban breeding sites, and preferred natural developmental sites were bamboo stumps and rock holes in peri-urban and gully areas. The virus has been isolated from field collected Ae. albopictus females, and in two out of 500 pools of larvae, demonstrating vertical transmission. Experimental works showed that both Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti from west IO islands are efficient vectors of dengue and chikungunya viruses. Since 2006 and all along the epidemic of CHIKV, measures for the control of larvae (temephos then Bacillus thuringiensis) and adults (fenitrothion, then deltamethrine) of Ae. albopictus where applied along with individual and collective actions (by the use of repellents, and removal of breeding sites around houses) in Reunion Island. In order to prevent such epidemics, a preventive plan for arboviruses upsurge is ongoing processed. This plan would allow a quicker response to the threat and adapt it according to the virus and its specific vector.
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H. Delatte, C. Paupy, J.S. Dehecq, J. Thiria, Anna-Bella Failloux, et al.. Aedes albopictus , vecteur des virus du chikungunya et de la dengue à la Réunion : biologie et contrôle. Parasite, EDP Sciences, 2008, 15 (1), pp.3 - 13. ⟨10.1051/parasite/2008151003⟩. ⟨pasteur-01696240⟩

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