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J. Cavaillon, M. Gougeon, J. Levraud, G. Milon, S. Pellegrini-for-their-constructive-advices-auvray et al., Harm Hogenesch for critical reading of the manuscript, and to the collegial spirit contributed by laboratory members LaëtitiaGenRift') and the French Government's Investissement d' Avenir program, Laboratoire d, Acknowledgements Special thanks justly belongs to Xavier Montagutelli for his expertise in mouse population genetics and statistics Satoko Tokuda, and Jing Zhang. We thank Patricia Flamant, Huot Khun, and Carole Tamietti for technical support. This work was funded by grants of the Agence Nationale de la Recherche). R. L. was awarded postdoctoral fellowships from the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, and the Institut Pasteur

A. Contributions, R. L. , and J. J. , conceived and designed the overall study