Pre-treatment with Lactobacillus plantarum prevents severe pathogenesis in mice infected with Leptospira interrogans and may be associated with recruitment of myeloid cells

Abstract : Recent estimates on global morbidity and mortality caused by Leptospirosis point to one million cases and almost 60,000 deaths a year worldwide, especially in resource poor countries. We analyzed how a commensal probiotic immunomodulator, Lactobacillus plantarum, affects Leptospira interrogans pathogenesis in a murine model of sub-lethal leptospirosis. We found that repeated oral pre-treatment of mice with live L. plantarum restored body weight to normal levels in mice infected with L. interrogans. Pre-treatment did not prevent L. interrogans access to the kidney but it affected the inflammatory response and it reduced histopathological signs of disease. Analysis of the immune cell profiles in lymphoid tissues of mice pre-treated with L. plantarum showed increased numbers of B cells as well as naïve and memory CD4+ helper T cell populations in uninfected mice that shifted towards increased numbers of effector CD4+ helper T in infected mice. CD8+ cytotoxic T cell profiles in pre-treated uninfected and infected mice mirrored the switch observed for CD4+ except that CD8+ memory T cells were not affected. In addition, pre-treatment led to increased populations of monocytes in lymphoid tissues of uninfected mice and to increased populations of macrophages in the same tissues of infected mice. Immunohistochemistry of kidney sections of pre-treated infected mice showed an enrichment of neutrophils and macrophages and a reduction of total leucocytes and T cells. Our results suggest that complex myeloid and T cell responses orchestrate the deployment of monocytes and other cells from lymphoid tissue and the recruitment of neutrophils and macrophages to the kidney, and that, the presence of these cells in the target organ may be associated with reductions in pathogenesis observed in infected mice treated with L. plantarum.
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PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, Public Library of Science, 2017, 11 (8), pp.e0005870. 〈10.1371/journal.pntd.0005870〉
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Hari-Hara Potula, Luciana Richer, Catherine Werts, Maria Gomes-Solecki. Pre-treatment with Lactobacillus plantarum prevents severe pathogenesis in mice infected with Leptospira interrogans and may be associated with recruitment of myeloid cells. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, Public Library of Science, 2017, 11 (8), pp.e0005870. 〈10.1371/journal.pntd.0005870〉. 〈pasteur-01658330〉

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