M. Rutter, Genetic studies of autism: from the 1970s into the millennium, Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, vol.28, issue.1, pp.3-14, 2000.
DOI : 10.1023/A:1005113900068

S. Folstein and B. Rosen-sheidley, Genetics of austim: complex aetiology for a heterogeneous disorder, Nature Reviews Genetics, vol.322, issue.12, pp.943-955, 2001.
DOI : 10.1136/bmj.322.7284.460

J. Veenstra-vanderweele, E. Cook, J. Lombroso, and P. , Genetics of Childhood Disorders: XLVI. Autism, Part 5: Genetics of Autism, Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, vol.42, issue.1, pp.116-118, 2003.
DOI : 10.1097/00004583-200301000-00018

T. Manolio, F. Collins, N. Cox, D. Goldstein, and L. Hindorff, Finding the missing heritability of complex diseases, Nature, vol.41, issue.7265, pp.747-753, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.tig.2007.12.007

M. Mccarthy, G. Abecasis, L. Cardon, D. Goldstein, and J. Little, Genome-wide association studies for complex traits: consensus, uncertainty and challenges, Nature Reviews Genetics, vol.3, issue.5, pp.356-369, 2008.
DOI : 10.7326/0003-4819-134-8-200104170-00012

C. Leblond, J. Heinrich, R. Delorme, C. Proepper, and C. Betancur, Genetic and Functional Analyses of SHANK2 Mutations Suggest a Multiple Hit Model of Autism Spectrum Disorders, PLoS Genetics, vol.92, issue.Pt 11, p.1002521, 2012.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002521.s016

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00834560

S. Berkel, C. Marshall, B. Weiss, J. Howe, and R. Roeth, Mutations in the SHANK2 synaptic scaffolding gene in autism spectrum disorder and mental retardation, Nature Genetics, vol.19, issue.6, pp.489-491, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cell.2009.01.050

S. Jamain, H. Quach, C. Betancur, M. Rastam, and C. Colineaux, Mutations of the X-linked genes encoding neuroligins NLGN3 and NLGN4 are associated with autism, Nature Genetics, vol.34, issue.1, pp.27-29, 2003.
DOI : 10.1038/ng1136

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00124744

C. Durand, C. Betancur, T. Boeckers, J. Bockmann, and P. Chaste, Mutations in the gene encoding the synaptic scaffolding protein SHANK3 are associated with autism spectrum disorders, Nature Genetics, vol.28, issue.1, pp.25-27, 2007.
DOI : 10.1038/ng1933

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00126175

I. Nir, D. Meir, N. Zilber, H. Knobler, and J. Hadjez, Brief report: Circadian melatonin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, prolactin, and cortisol levels in serum of young adults with autism, Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, vol.272, issue.Suppl., pp.641-654, 1995.
DOI : 10.1176/ajp.145.2.229

G. Kulman, P. Lissoni, F. Rovelli, M. Roselli, and F. Brivio, Evidence of pineal endocrine hypofunction in autistic children, Neuro Endocrinol Lett, vol.21, pp.31-34, 2000.

S. Tordjman, G. Anderson, N. Pichard, H. Charbuy, and Y. Touitou, Nocturnal excretion of 6-sulphatoxymelatonin in children and adolescents with autistic disorder, Biological Psychiatry, vol.57, issue.2, pp.134-138, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.biopsych.2004.11.003

V. Srinivasan, D. Spence, I. Trakht, S. Pandi-perumal, and D. Cardinali, Immunomodulation by Melatonin: Its Significance for Seasonally Occurring Diseases, Neuroimmunomodulation, vol.15, issue.2, pp.93-101, 2008.
DOI : 10.1159/000148191

M. Maldonado, F. Murillo-cabezas, M. Terron, L. Flores, and D. Tan, The potential of melatonin in reducing morbidity?mortality after craniocerebral trauma, Journal of Pineal Research, vol.20, issue.1, pp.1-11, 2007.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1600-079X.2005.00304.x

M. Perlis, D. Giles, D. Buysse, X. Tu, and D. Kupfer, Self-reported sleep disturbance as a prodromal symptom in recurrent depression, Journal of Affective Disorders, vol.42, issue.2-3, pp.209-212, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/S0165-0327(96)01411-5

L. Agez, V. Laurent, H. Guerrero, P. Pevet, and M. Masson-pevet, Endogenous melatonin provides an effective circadian message to both the suprachiasmatic nuclei and the pars tuberalis of the rat, Journal of Pineal Research, vol.958, issue.1, pp.95-105, 2009.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1600-079X.2005.00230.x

J. Melke, G. Botros, H. Chaste, P. Betancur, C. Nygren et al., Abnormal melatonin synthesis in autism spectrum disorders, Molecular Psychiatry, vol.280, issue.1, pp.90-98, 2008.
DOI : 10.1002/mrdd.20023

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00166901

B. Etain, A. Dumaine, F. Bellivier, C. Pagan, and L. Francelle, Genetic and functional abnormalities of the melatonin biosynthesis pathway in patients with bipolar disorder, Human Molecular Genetics, vol.21, issue.18, pp.4030-4037, 2012.
DOI : 10.1093/hmg/dds227

P. Galecki, J. Szemraj, G. Bartosz, M. Bienkiewicz, and E. Galecka, Single-nucleotide polymorphisms and mRNA expression for melatonin synthesis rate-limiting enzyme in recurrent depressive disorder, Journal of Pineal Research, vol.61, issue.4, pp.311-317, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/S1734-1140(09)70081-7

C. Toma, M. Rossi, I. Sousa, F. Blasi, and E. Bacchelli, Is ASMT a susceptibility gene for autism spectrum disorders? A replication study in European populations, Molecular Psychiatry, vol.21, issue.11, pp.977-979, 2007.
DOI : 10.1038/sj.mp.4002069

G. Cai, L. Edelmann, J. Goldsmith, N. Cohen, and A. Nakamine, Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification for genetic screening in autism spectrum disorders: Efficient identification of known microduplications and identification of a novel microduplication in ASMT, BMC Medical Genomics, vol.12, issue.11, p.50, 2008.
DOI : 10.1038/sj.mp.4002069

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00375019

C. Pagan, H. Botros, K. Poirier, A. Dumaine, and S. Jamain, Mutation screening of ASMT, the last enzyme of the melatonin pathway, in a large sample of patients with Intellectual Disability, BMC Medical Genetics, vol.3, issue.Pt 4, p.17, 2011.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0003055

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00610655

I. Adzhubei, S. Schmidt, L. Peshkin, V. Ramensky, and A. Gerasimova, A method and server for predicting damaging missense mutations, Nature Methods, vol.7, issue.4, pp.248-249, 2010.
DOI : 10.1038/nmeth0410-248

URL : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2855889

P. Ng and S. Henikoff, SIFT: predicting amino acid changes that affect protein function, Nucleic Acids Research, vol.31, issue.13, pp.3812-3814, 2003.
DOI : 10.1093/nar/gkg509

URL : https://academic.oup.com/nar/article-pdf/31/13/3812/9487105/gkg509.pdf

P. Kumar, S. Henikoff, and P. Ng, Predicting the effects of coding non-synonymous variants on protein function using the SIFT algorithm, Nature Protocols, vol.4, issue.8, pp.1073-1081, 2009.
DOI : 10.1101/gr.772403

J. Tennessen, A. Bigham, O. Connor, T. Fu, W. Kenny et al., Evolution and Functional Impact of Rare Coding Variation from Deep Sequencing of Human Exomes, Science, vol.38, issue.9, pp.64-69, 2012.
DOI : 10.1093/nar/gkq009

V. Matys, O. Kel-margoulis, E. Fricke, I. Liebich, and S. Land, TRANSFAC(R) and its module TRANSCompel(R): transcriptional gene regulation in eukaryotes, Nucleic Acids Research, vol.34, issue.90001, pp.108-110, 2006.
DOI : 10.1093/nar/gkj143

URL : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1347505

E. Wingender, The TRANSFAC project as an example of framework technology that supports the analysis of genomic regulation, Briefings in Bioinformatics, vol.9, issue.4, pp.326-332, 2008.
DOI : 10.1093/bib/bbn016

S. Gabriel, S. Schaffner, H. Nguyen, J. Moore, and J. Roy, The Structure of Haplotype Blocks in the Human Genome, Science, vol.296, issue.5576, pp.2225-2229, 2002.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1069424

J. Barrett, B. Fry, J. Maller, and M. Daly, Haploview: analysis and visualization of LD and haplotype maps, Bioinformatics, vol.21, issue.2, pp.263-265, 2005.
DOI : 10.1093/bioinformatics/bth457

P. Taupin, Adult neurogenesis, neuroinflammation and therapeutic potential of adult neural stem cells, Int J Med Sci, vol.5, pp.127-132, 2008.

B. Halliwell, Oxygen radicals as key mediators in neurological disease: Fact or fiction?, Annals of Neurology, vol.42, issue.S1, pp.10-15, 1992.
DOI : 10.1161/01.RES.68.2.416

S. Jimenez-jorge, J. Guerrero, A. Jimenez-caliani, M. Naranjo, and P. Lardone, Evidence for melatonin synthesis in the rat brain during development, Journal of Pineal Research, vol.128, issue.3, pp.240-246, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.bcp.2004.01.027

R. Lam, A. Berkowitz, S. Berga, C. Clark, and D. Kripke, Melatonin suppression in bipolar and unipolar mood disorders, Psychiatry Research, vol.33, issue.2, pp.129-134, 1990.
DOI : 10.1016/0165-1781(90)90066-E

V. Srinivasan, M. Smits, W. Spence, A. Lowe, and L. Kayumov, Melatonin in mood disorders, The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry, vol.107, issue.7, pp.138-151, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/S0002-9343(99)00266-1

S. Kumar, P. Andrade, C. Bhakta, S. Singh, and N. , Melatonin in Schizophrenic Outpatients With Insomnia, The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, vol.68, issue.02, pp.237-241, 2007.
DOI : 10.4088/JCP.v68n0208

P. Chaste, N. Clement, H. Botros, J. Guillaume, and M. Konyukh, Genetic variations of the melatonin pathway in patients with attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorders, Journal of Pineal Research, vol.1167, issue.4, pp.394-399, 2011.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.04604.x

H. Park, J. Park, S. Kim, A. Cho, and J. Kim, Association of Polymorphism in the Promoter of the Melatonin Receptor 1A Gene with Schizophrenia and with Insomnia Symptoms in Schizophrenia Patients, Journal of Molecular Neuroscience, vol.44, issue.2, pp.304-308, 2011.
DOI : 10.1001/archpsyc.1987.01800130047007

D. Kripke, C. Nievergelt, G. Tranah, S. Murray, and M. Mccarthy, Polymorphisms in melatonin synthesis pathways: possible influences on depression, Journal of Circadian Rhythms, vol.9, issue.1, p.8, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.biopsych.2010.06.004

URL : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3177871

H. Botros, P. Legrand, C. Pagan, V. Bondet, and P. Weber, Crystal structure and functional mapping of human ASMT, the last enzyme of the melatonin synthesis pathway, Journal of Pineal Research, vol.426, issue.1, 2012.
DOI : 10.1038/nature02168

L. Jonsson, E. Ljunggren, A. Bremer, C. Pedersen, and M. Landen, Mutation screening of melatonin-related genes in patients with autism spectrum disorders, BMC Medical Genomics, vol.46, issue.1, p.10, 2010.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1600-079X.2008.00659.x

B. Neale, Y. Kou, L. Liu, A. Ma-'ayan, and K. Samocha, Patterns and rates of exonic de novo mutations in autism spectrum disorders, Nature, vol.7, issue.7397, pp.242-245, 2012.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pgen.1001322

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00939274

O. Roak, B. Vives, L. Girirajan, S. Karakoc, E. Krumm et al., Sporadic autism exomes reveal a highly interconnected protein network of de novo mutations, Nature, vol.485, pp.246-250, 2012.

S. Sanders, M. Murtha, A. Gupta, J. Murdoch, and M. Raubeson, De novo mutations revealed by whole-exome sequencing are strongly associated with autism, Nature, vol.478, issue.7397, pp.237-241, 2012.
DOI : 10.1038/nature10523

URL : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3667984