H. Skarin, T. Åberg, A. Woudstra, C. Hansen, T. Löfström et al., The Workshop on Animal Botulism in Europe, Biosecurity and Bioterrorism: Biodefense Strategy, Practice, and Science, vol.11, issue.S1, pp.183-90, 2013.
DOI : 10.1089/bsp.2012.0076

H. Skarin, Y. Lindgren, and D. Jansson, Type C/D in Laying Hens, Avian Diseases, vol.59, issue.2, pp.335-375, 2015.
DOI : 10.1637/10861-051214-Case

L. Marechal, C. Ballan, V. Rouxel, S. Bayon-auboyer, M. Baudouard et al., Livers provide a reliable matrix for real-time PCR confirmation of avian botulism, Anaerobe, vol.38, pp.7-13, 2016.
DOI : 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2015.10.014

C. Woudstra, H. Skarin, F. Anniballi, L. Fenicia, L. Bano et al., Neurotoxin Gene Profiling of Clostridium botulinum Types C and D Native to Different Countries within Europe, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol.78, issue.9, pp.3120-3127, 2012.
DOI : 10.1128/AEM.07568-11

C. Chun, U. Ochsner, M. Byappanahalli, R. Whitman, W. Tepp et al., Association of toxin-producing Clostridium botulinum with the macroalga Cladophora in the Great Lakes. Environmental science & technology, pp.2587-9402, 2013.

G. Hannett, W. Stone, S. Davis, and D. Wroblewski, Biodiversity of Clostridium botulinum Type E Associated with a Large Outbreak of Botulism in Wildlife from Lake Erie and Lake Ontario, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol.77, issue.3, pp.1061-1069, 2011.
DOI : 10.1128/AEM.01578-10

B. Lafrancois, S. Riley, D. Blehert, and A. Ballmann, Links between type E botulism outbreaks, lake levels, and surface water temperatures in Lake Michigan, 1963???2008, Journal of Great Lakes Research, vol.37, issue.1, pp.86-91, 1963.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jglr.2010.10.003

L. Chun, C. Kahn, C. Borchert, A. Byappanahalli, M. Whitman et al., Prevalence of toxinproducing Clostridium botulinum associated with the macroalga Cladophora in three Great Lakes: growth and management. The Science of the total environment, pp.523-532, 2015.

A. Perez-fuentetaja, M. Clapsadl, D. Einhouse, P. Bowser, R. Getchell et al., Influence of Limnological Conditions on Clostridium Botulinum Type E Presence in Eastern Lake Erie Sediments (Great Lakes, USA), Hydrobiologia, vol.35, issue.1, pp.189-200, 2006.
DOI : 10.7589/0090-3558-40.4.749

A. Perez-fuentetaja, M. Clapsadl, R. Getchell, P. Bowser, and W. Lee, Clostridium botulinum type E in Lake Erie: Inter-annual differences and role of benthic invertebrates, Journal of Great Lakes Research, vol.37, issue.2, pp.238-282, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jglr.2011.03.013

A. Nf, U47-600-1. Méthodes d'analyse en santé animale?PCR (réaction de polymérisation en cha??necha??ne)?Partie 1: exigences et recommandations pour la mise en oeuvre de la PCR en santé animale2015

A. Nfu, Méthodes d'analyse en santé animale?PCR (réaction de polymérisation en cha??necha??ne)?Partie 2: exigences et recommandations pour le développement et la validation de la PCR en santé animale2015, pp.47-600

P. Fach, L. Fenicia, R. Knutsson, P. Wielinga, F. Anniballi et al., An innovative molecular detection tool for tracking and tracing Clostridium botulinum types A, B, E, F and other botulinum neurotoxin producing Clostridia based on the GeneDisc cycler, International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol.145, issue.1, pp.145-51, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2010.04.006

H. Skarin, A. Lindberg, G. Blomqvist, A. Aspan, and V. Baverud, Molecular characterization and comparison of Clostridium botulinum type C avian strains, Avian Pathology, vol.39, issue.6, p.21154062, 2010.

B. Hill, J. Skerry, T. Smith, S. Arnon, and D. Douek, Universal and specific quantitative detection of botulinum neurotoxin genes, BMC Microbiology, vol.10, issue.1, pp.267-20961439, 2010.
DOI : 10.1186/1471-2180-10-267

H. Kouguchi, T. Suzuki, K. Hasegawa, S. Mutoh, T. Watanabe et al., Quantitative detection of gene expression and toxin complex produced by Clostridium botulinum serotype D strain 4947, Journal of Microbiological Methods, vol.67, issue.3, pp.416-439, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.mimet.2006.04.013

F. Anniballi, A. Fiore, C. Löfström, H. Skarin, B. Auricchio et al., Management of Animal Botulism Outbreaks: From Clinical Suspicion to Practical Countermeasures to Prevent or Minimize Outbreaks, Biosecurity and Bioterrorism: Biodefense Strategy, Practice, and Science, vol.11, issue.S1, pp.191-200, 2013.
DOI : 10.1089/bsp.2012.0089

F. Anniballi, B. Auricchio, E. Delibato, M. Antonacci, D. Medici et al., Multiplex real-time PCR SYBR Green for detection and typing of group III Clostridium botulinum, Veterinary Microbiology, vol.154, issue.3-4, pp.3-4, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.vetmic.2011.07.018

F. Anniballi, B. Auricchio, C. Woudstra, P. Fach, A. Fiore et al., Group III Organisms and Their Mosaic Variants, Biosecurity and Bioterrorism: Biodefense Strategy, Practice, and Science, vol.11, issue.S1, pp.207-221, 2013.
DOI : 10.1089/bsp.2012.0084

URL : https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3752518/pdf

D. Vidal, M. Taggart, I. Badiola, and M. R. , type C1 in waterbird and sediment samples, Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, vol.22, issue.5, pp.942-948, 2011.
DOI : 10.7589/0090-3558-33.2.181

URL : http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1040638711416847

A. Lindberg, H. Skarin, R. Knutsson, G. Blomqvist, and V. Baverud, Real-time PCR for Clostridium botulinum type C neurotoxin (BoNTC) gene, also covering a chimeric C/D sequence???Application on outbreaks of botulism in poultry, Veterinary Microbiology, vol.146, issue.1-2, pp.118-141, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.vetmic.2010.04.030

S. Hyun and G. Sakaguchi, Implication of coprophagy in pathogenesis of chicken botulism. Nippon juigaku zasshi The Japanese journal of veterinary science, pp.582-588, 1989.

H. Kurazono, K. Shimozawa, and G. Sakaguchi, Experimental botulism in pheasants Avian botulism: an international perspective, 1988.

S. Miyazaki and G. Sakaguchi, EXPERIMENTAL BOTULISM IN CHICKENS: THE CECUM AS THE SITE OF PRODUCTION AND ABSORPTION OF BOTULINUM TOXIN, Japanese Journal of Medical Science and Biology, vol.31, issue.1, pp.1-15, 1978.
DOI : 10.7883/yoken1952.31.1

S. Notermans, J. Dufrenne, and J. Oosterom, Persistence of Clostridium botulinum type B on a cattle farm after an outbreak of botulism, Appl Environ Microbiol, vol.41, issue.1, pp.179-83, 1981.

G. Smith, J. Hime, I. Keymer, J. Graham, P. Olney et al., Botulism in captive birds fed commercially-bred maggots, Veterinary Record, vol.97, issue.11, pp.204-209, 1975.
DOI : 10.1136/vr.97.11.204

G. Wobeser, S. Marsden, and R. Macfarlane, OCCURRENCE OF TOXIGENIC CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM TYPE C IN THE SOIL OF WETLANDS IN SASKATCHEWAN, Journal of Wildlife Diseases, vol.23, issue.1, pp.67-76, 1987.
DOI : 10.7589/0090-3558-23.1.67

D. Vidal, I. Anza, M. Taggart, E. Perez-ramirez, E. Crespo et al., Environmental Factors Influencing the Prevalence of a Clostridium botulinum Type C/D Mosaic Strain in Nonpermanent Mediterranean Wetlands, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol.79, issue.14, pp.4264-71, 2013.
DOI : 10.1128/AEM.01191-13

G. Franciosa, L. Fenicia, C. Caldiani, and P. Aureli, PCR for detection of Clostridium botulinum type C in avian and environmental samples, J Clin Microbiol, vol.34, issue.4, pp.882-887, 1996.

C. Vidal, Comparative evaluation of the aes-chemunex lab blender smasher ® , seward stomacher ® , interscience bagmixer ® and pulsifier ® on viable cell counts of foods, noise level, ergonomics, and ease of cleaning, 2006.

D. Kang, R. Dougherty, and D. Fung, TO DETACH MICROORGANISMS FROM LEAN MEAT TISSUES, Journal of Rapid Methods and Automation in Microbiology, vol.24, issue.1, pp.27-32, 2001.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1745-4565.1995.tb00135.x

V. Wu, P. Jitareerat, and D. Fung, COMPARISON OF THE PULSIFIER AND THE STOMACHER FOR RECOVERING MICROORGANISMS IN VEGETABLES, Journal of Rapid Methods and Automation in Microbiology, vol.24, issue.2, pp.145-52, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0315-5463(77)73494-7

I. Anza, H. Skarin, D. Vidal, A. Lindberg, V. Baverud et al., The same clade of Clostridium botulinum strains is causing avian botulism in southern and northern Europe, Anaerobe, vol.26, pp.20-23, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2014.01.002

M. Popoff, Revue sur l'e ´pidémiologie du botulisme bovin en France et analyse de sa relation avec les e ´levages de volailles. Rev sci tech Off int Epiz, pp.129-174, 1989.

W. Gross and L. Smith, Experimental Botulism in Gallinaceous Birds, Avian Diseases, vol.15, issue.4, pp.716-738, 1971.
DOI : 10.2307/1588859

K. Nakamura, T. Kohda, K. Umeda, H. Yamamoto, M. Mukamoto et al., Characterization of the D/C mosaic neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum associated with bovine botulism in Japan, Veterinary Microbiology, vol.140, issue.1-2, pp.147-54, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.vetmic.2009.07.023

N. Nuemket, Y. Tanaka, K. Tsukamoto, T. Tsuji, K. Nakamura et al., Structural and mutational analyses of the receptor binding domain of botulinum D/C mosaic neurotoxin: Insight into the ganglioside binding mechanism, Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol.411, issue.2, pp.433-442, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.bbrc.2011.06.173

T. Rocke, The global importance of avian botulism The stationery office, Waterbirds around the world, pp.422-428, 2006.

I. Anza, D. Vidal, J. Feliu, E. Crespo, and M. R. , ABSTRACT, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol.82, issue.10
DOI : 10.1128/AEM.00119-16

DOI : 10.7589/0090-3558-27.1.81