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, The authors declare no competing financial interests

, Correspondence and requests for materials should be addressed to F.-X.W. 779 (fxweill@pasteur.fr)

, This study was supported by the Institut Pasteur and the Institut Pasteur International 784

, Network, the Institut de Veille Sanitaire, the French government's Investissement 785

, Avenir programme, Laboratoire d'Excellence, Integrative Biology of Emerging, vol.786

, Infectious Diseases' (grant number ANR-10-LABX-62-IBEID), the Fondation « Le 787

R. Mousquetaires,

, Canetti Award 2013, the Wellcome Trust through grant 098051 to the Sanger Institute, 789 the NHMRC of Australia

, Computation Initiative (VLSCI) (grant VR0082) and the Indian Council of Medical 791

C. P. Pugsley and J. Bréchot, We thank A. Dautry-Versat, A, Research

, Savall for their support

T. Hieu, C. Soto, and E. , Bourreterre and B. Faye for technical 793 assistance

Z. Szabó and D. , Tremblay for providing isolates

L. R. Hiltzik and N. Baldwin, , p.794

C. Mackenzie, for their searches of the archives

M. Toucas, H. Hauteville, and E. Aldová, , p.795

S. Formal, A. T. Gut, M. Gut, L. Ma, D. Harris et al., Maurelli for information about isolates; D. Nedelec for helpful 796 discussion

, Institut Pasteur and Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute for sequencing the samples, The, vol.798