M. Interne, L. K. Hôpital-de-bicêtre, and . Bicêtre, Dr Caroline Lascoux, Prof. Daniel Séréni, Service de Médecine Interne, Hôpital Saint Louis

P. Mme-michelle-pauchard, P. C. François-bricaire, and . Katlama, Hôpital Pitié-Salpêtrière, Service des Maladies Infectieuses

G. Rémy, S. Des-maladies-infectieuses, R. Debré, R. Mr-bernard-warde, M. P. Honoré et al., Service d'Immuno-pathologie, Hôpital Saint Louis, Paris. Mme Véronique Ronat, Prof Frédéric Lucht, Service de Maladie Infectieuse, Hôpital Bellevue, Hôpital Raymond Poincarré, Garches. Dr Michel Malet, Pr. Daniel Vittecoq, Service des Maladies Infectieuses

P. Mme-isabelle-raymond, S. Jean-marie-ragnaud, B. Des-maladies-infectieuses, H. Pellegrinvirologie, and C. Necker, Mr Philippe Feret, Prof. Claude Bazin, Mme Pascale Nau, Prof. Patrick Choutet, Service des Maladies Infectieuses, Hôpital Bretonneau, Tours. Mme Florence Balsarin, Prof. Patrice Massip, Service des Maladies Infectieuses, Hôpital Purpan The steering committee Dr Olivier LAMBOTTE Prof. Christine Rouzioux (Virologie, CHU Necker), Dr Véronique Avettand Fenoel Dr Alain Venet (Immunologie, INSERM Bicêtre), Dr Martine Sinet (Immunologie, INSERM Bicêtre), Dr Gianfranco Pancino (Immunologie Dr Lisa Chakrabarti (Immunologie, Institut Pasteur), Dr Jean-Philippe Herbeuval (Immunologie, INSERM Necker), Dr Ioannis Theodorou Mme Marie Préau (INSERM UMR912 Mme Sandrine Couffin-Cadiergues (ANRS)

J. Bailey, T. Williams, R. Siliciano, and J. Blankson, elite suppressors despite CTL escape mutations, The Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol.69, issue.5, pp.1357-69, 2006.
DOI : 10.1089/08892220260235425

URL : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2121215

J. Blankson, J. Bailey, S. Thayil, H. Yang, H. Lassen et al., Isolation and Characterization of Replication-Competent Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 from a Subset of Elite Suppressors, Journal of Virology, vol.81, issue.5, pp.2508-2526, 2007.
DOI : 10.1128/JVI.02165-06

A. Sáez-cirión, G. Pancino, M. Sinet, A. Venet, and O. Lambotte, HIV controllers: how do they tame the virus?, Trends in Immunology, vol.28, issue.12, pp.532-572, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.it.2007.09.002

S. Deeks and B. Walker, Human Immunodeficiency Virus Controllers: Mechanisms of Durable Virus Control in the Absence of Antiretroviral Therapy, Immunity, vol.27, issue.3, pp.406-416, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.immuni.2007.08.010

F. Pereyra, M. Addo, D. Kaufmann, Y. Liu, and A. Miura, Genetic and Immunologic Heterogeneity among Persons Who Control HIV Infection in the Absence of Therapy, The Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol.197, issue.4, pp.563-571, 2008.
DOI : 10.1086/526786

B. Rodés, C. Toro, E. Paxinos, E. Poveda, and M. Martinez-padial, Differences in disease progression in a cohort of long-term non-progressors after more than 16 years of HIV-1 infection, AIDS, vol.18, issue.8, pp.1109-1125, 2004.
DOI : 10.1097/00002030-200405210-00004

P. Easterbrook, Non-progression in HIV infection, AIDS, vol.8, issue.8, pp.1179-82, 1994.
DOI : 10.1097/00002030-199408000-00023

S. Buchbinder, M. Katz, N. Hessol, O. Malley, P. Holmberg et al., Long-term HIV-1 infection without immunologic progression, AIDS, vol.8, issue.8, pp.1123-1131, 1994.
DOI : 10.1097/00002030-199408000-00014

J. Lefrere, M. , L. Mariotti, M. Bludau, H. Burghoffer et al., Even individuals considered as long-term nonprogressors show biological signs of progression after 10 years of human immunodeficiency virus infection, Blood, vol.90, pp.1133-1173, 1997.

Y. Madec, F. Boufassa, V. Avettand-fenoel, S. Hendou, and A. Melard, Early Control of HIV-1 Infection in Long-Term Nonprogressors Followed Since Diagnosis in the ANRS SEROCO/HEMOCO Cohort, JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, vol.50, issue.1, pp.19-26, 2009.
DOI : 10.1097/QAI.0b013e31818ce709

Y. Madec, F. Boufassa, C. Rouzioux, J. Delfraissy, and L. Meyer, Undetectable Viremia without Antiretroviral Therapy in Patients with HIV Seroconversion: An Uncommon Phenomenon?, Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol.40, issue.9, pp.1350-1354, 2005.
DOI : 10.1086/429318

URL : http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/short/40/9/1350

Y. Madec, F. Boufassa, K. Porter, L. Meyer, and C. Collaboration, Spontaneous control of viral load and CD4 cell count progression among HIV-1 seroconverters, AIDS, vol.19, issue.17, pp.2001-2008, 2005.
DOI : 10.1097/01.aids.0000194134.28135.cd

O. Lambotte, F. Boufassa, Y. Madec, A. Nguyen, and C. Goujard, HIV controllers: a homogeneous group of HIV-1-infected patients with spontaneous control of viral replication Clinical Infectious Disease 41, pp.1053-1059, 2005.

J. Okulicz, V. Marconi, M. Landrum, S. Wegner, and A. Weintrob, Clinical Outcomes of Elite Controllers, Viremic Controllers, and Long???Term Nonprogressors in the US Department of Defense HIV Natural History Study, The Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol.200, issue.11, pp.1714-1737, 2009.
DOI : 10.1086/646609

M. Sajadi, N. Constantine, D. Mann, M. Charurat, and E. Dadzan, Epidemiologic Characteristics and Natural History of HIV-1 Natural Viral Suppressors, JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, vol.50, issue.4, pp.403-411, 2009.
DOI : 10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181945f1e

V. Avettand-fènoël, M. Chaix, S. Blanche, M. Burgard, and C. Floch, LTR real-time PCR for HIV-1 DNA quantitation in blood cells for early diagnosis in infants born to seropositive mothers treated in HAART area (ANRS CO 01), J Med Virol, vol.81, issue.2, pp.217-240, 2009.

Y. Madec, F. Boufassa, and V. , Early Control of HIV-1 Infection in Long-Term Nonprogressors Followed Since Diagnosis in the ANRS SEROCO/HEMOCO Cohort, JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, vol.50, issue.1, pp.19-26, 2009.
DOI : 10.1097/QAI.0b013e31818ce709

V. Avettand-fènoël, F. Boufassa, J. Galimand, L. Meyer, and C. Rouzioux, HIV-1 DNA for the measurement of the HIV reservoir is predictive of disease progression in seroconverters whatever the mode of result expression is, Journal of Clinical Virology, vol.42, issue.4, pp.399-404, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jcv.2008.03.013

J. Hubert, M. Burgard, E. Dussaix, C. Tamalet, and C. Deveau, Natural history of serum HIV-1 RNA levels in 330 patients with a known date of infection, AIDS, vol.14, issue.2, pp.123-154, 2000.
DOI : 10.1097/00002030-200001280-00007

S. Grabar, H. Selinger-leneman, S. Abgrall, G. Pialoux, L. Weiss et al., Prevalence and comparative characteristics of long-term nonprogressors and HIV controller patients in the French Hospital Database on HIV, AIDS, vol.23, issue.9, pp.1163-69, 2009.
DOI : 10.1097/QAD.0b013e32832b44c8

C. Dalmasso, W. Carpentier, L. Meyer, C. Rouzioux, and C. Goujard, Distinct Genetic Loci Control Plasma HIV-RNA and Cellular HIV-DNA Levels in HIV-1 Infection: The ANRS Genome Wide Association 01 Study, PLoS ONE, vol.46, issue.12, p.3907, 2008.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0003907.s002

R. Lyles, A. Munoz, T. Yamashita, H. Bazmi, and R. Detels, Natural History of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Viremia after Seroconversion and Proximal to AIDS in a Large Cohort of Homosexual Men, The Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol.181, issue.3, pp.872-880, 2000.
DOI : 10.1086/315339

R. Seng, C. Goujard, L. Desquilbet, M. Sinet, and C. Rouzioux, Rapid CD4+ Cell Decrease After Transient cART Initiated During Primary HIV Infection (ANRS PRIMO and SEROCO Cohorts), JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, vol.49, issue.3, pp.251-258, 2008.
DOI : 10.1097/QAI.0b013e318189a739

G. Djomand, A. Duerr, J. Faulhaber, C. Struchiner, and A. Pacheco, Viral Load and CD4 Count Dynamics After HIV-1 Seroconversion in Homosexual and Bisexual Men in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, vol.43, issue.4, pp.401-405, 2006.
DOI : 10.1097/01.qai.0000243117.21788.90

V. Novitsky, E. Woldegabriel, L. Kebaabetswe, R. Rossenkhan, and B. Mlotshwa, Viral Load and CD4+ T-Cell Dynamics in Primary HIV-1 Subtype C Infection, JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, vol.50, issue.1, pp.60-76, 2009.
DOI : 10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181900141

F. Peyrera, S. Palmer, T. Miura, B. Block, and A. Wiegand, Persistent Low???Level Viremia in HIV???1 Elite Controllers and Relationship to Immunologic Parameters, The Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol.200, issue.6, pp.984-990, 2009.
DOI : 10.1086/605446

A. Saez-cirion, M. Sinet, Y. Shin, S. Urrutia, and P. Versmisse, Heterogeneity in HIV Suppression by CD8 T Cells from HIV Controllers: Association with Gag-Specific CD8 T Cell Responses, The Journal of Immunology, vol.182, issue.12, pp.7828-7865, 2009.
DOI : 10.4049/jimmunol.0803928

P. Hunt, J. Brenchley, E. Sinclair, J. Mccune, and M. Roland, T Cell Count in HIV???Seropositive Individuals with Undetectable Plasma HIV RNA Levels in the Absence of Therapy, The Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol.197, issue.1, pp.126-159, 2008.
DOI : 10.1086/524143

M. Hull, M. Loutfy, W. Zhang, A. Shen, and V. Lima, Persistent low-level viremia is associated with increased risk of virologic failure and mortality, Abstract L-189, Poster #504. 17 th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, 2010.

O. Byrne, K. Dalgleish, and A. , Chronic immune activation and inflammation as the cause of malignancy, British Journal of Cancer, vol.85, issue.4, pp.473-483, 2001.
DOI : 10.1054/bjoc.2001.1943

P. Hsue, P. Hunt, A. Schnell, S. Kalapus, and R. Hoh, Role of viral replication, antiretroviral therapy, and immunodeficiency in HIV-associated atherosclerosis, AIDS, vol.23, issue.9, pp.1059-67, 2009.
DOI : 10.1097/QAD.0b013e32832b514b

P. Hunt, Role of immune activation in HIV pathogenesis, Current HIV/AIDS Reports, vol.194, issue.1, pp.42-49, 2007.
DOI : 10.1007/s11904-007-0007-8