I. Transfusion, L. H. Department, C. Lascoux, O. Taulera, K. Bourdic et al., Maria Manea, and all the other physicians and nurses who cared for the patients whose samples were included in the study We also thank Polymun Scientific, Klosterneuburg, Austria, who provided all reagents for p24 ELISA. The reagents ARP118 (HIV-BaL) and ARP177HIV-92UG037) were obtained from the Centre for AIDS Reagents , National Institute for Biological Standards and Control, Health Protection Agency (UK), which is supported by the EC FP6 Reagent Program) and by the World Health Organization United Nations AIDS Network for HIV Isolation and Characterization (92UG037). Financial support. This work was supported by the Austrian Science Fund (grants FWF P22165 and P24598 to D, Europrise Network of Excellence, the NGIN consortia, and the Bill and Melinda Gates GHRC-CAVD Project and were donated by S. Gartner, M. Popovic, and R. Gallo (courtesy of the National Institutes of Health AIDS Research and Reference SFB 021 to Z. T., and P25389 to W. P.), the Oesterreichische Nationalbank Anniversary Fund ( project 14875 to W. P.), and the Agence Nationale de la Recherche Contre le SIDA et les Hépatites Virales (to A. S.-C.). Potential conflicts of interest. All authors: No reported conflicts. All authors have submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Conflicts that the editors consider relevant to the content of the manuscript have been disclosed

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