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Genetic Adaptation and Neandertal Admixture Shaped the Immune System of Human Populations

Abstract : Humans differ in the outcome that follows exposure to life-threatening pathogens, yet the extent of population differences in immune responses and their genetic and evolutionary determinants remain undefined. Here, we characterized, using RNA sequencing, the transcriptional response of primary monocytes from Africans and Europeans to bacterial and viral stimuli—ligands activating Toll-like receptor pathways (TLR1/2, TLR4, and TLR7/8) and influenza virus—and mapped expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs). We identify numerous cis-eQTLs that contribute to the marked differences in immune responses detected within and between populations and a strong trans-eQTL hotspot at TLR1 that decreases expression of pro-inflammatory genes in Europeans only. We find that immune-responsive regulatory variants are enriched in population-specific signals of natural selection and show that admixture with Neandertals introduced regulatory variants into European genomes, affecting preferentially responses to viral challenges. Together, our study uncovers evolutionarily important determinants of differences in host immune responsiveness between human populations.
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https://hal-pasteur.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-01385620
Contributor : Helene Quach <>
Submitted on : Friday, October 21, 2016 - 4:50:02 PM
Last modification on : Thursday, August 27, 2020 - 3:10:04 PM

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Hélène Quach, Maxime Rotival, Julien Pothlichet, Yong-Hwee eddie Loh, Michael Dannemann, et al.. Genetic Adaptation and Neandertal Admixture Shaped the Immune System of Human Populations. Cell, Elsevier, 2016, 167 (3), pp.643 - 656.e17. ⟨10.1016/j.cell.2016.09.024⟩. ⟨pasteur-01385620⟩

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