D. S. Dimitrov, R. L. Willey, H. Sato, L. J. Chang, R. Blumenthal et al., Quantitation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection kinetics, J. Virol, vol.67, pp.2182-2190, 1993.

F. Dianzani, Unidirectional budding of HIV-1 at the site of cell-to-cell contact is associated with co-polarization of intercellular adhesion molecules and HIV-1 viral matrix protein, Aids, vol.9, pp.329-335, 1995.

H. Sato, J. Orenstein, D. Dimitrov, and M. Martin, Cell-to-cell spread of HIV-1 occurs within minutes and may not involve the participation of virus particles, Virology, vol.186, issue.2, pp.712-724, 1992.
DOI : 10.1016/0042-6822(92)90038-Q

C. Jolly, K. Kashefi, M. Hollinshead, and Q. J. Sattentau, HIV-1 Cell to Cell Transfer across an Env-induced, Actin-dependent Synapse, The Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol.151, issue.2, pp.283-293, 2004.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.95.20.11880

F. Groot, S. Welsch, and Q. J. Sattentau, Efficient HIV-1 transmission from macrophages to T cells across transient virological synapses, Blood, vol.111, issue.9, pp.4660-4663, 2008.
DOI : 10.1182/blood-2007-12-130070

D. Mazurov, A. Ilinskaya, G. Heidecker, P. Lloyd, and D. Derse, Quantitative Comparison of HTLV-1 and HIV-1 Cell-to-Cell Infection with New Replication Dependent Vectors, PLoS Pathogens, vol.104, issue.8, 2010.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000788.s004

P. Chen, W. Hubner, M. A. Spinelli, and B. K. Chen, Predominant Mode of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transfer between T Cells Is Mediated by Sustained Env-Dependent Neutralization-Resistant Virological Synapses, Journal of Virology, vol.81, issue.22, pp.12582-95, 2007.
DOI : 10.1128/JVI.00381-07

M. Sourisseau, N. Sol-foulon, F. Porrot, F. Blanchet, and O. Schwartz, Inefficient Human Immunodeficiency Virus Replication in Mobile Lymphocytes, Journal of Virology, vol.81, issue.2, pp.1000-1012, 2007.
DOI : 10.1128/JVI.01629-06

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-00292736

A. Haase, T Cell Demographics and Dynamics in Lymphatic Tissues, Annual Review of Immunology, vol.17, issue.1, pp.625-656, 1999.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev.immunol.17.1.625

A. Jung, R. Maier, J. P. Vartanian, G. Bocharov, V. Jung et al., Recombination: Multiply infected spleen cells in HIV patients, Nature, vol.366, issue.6894, p.144, 2002.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.97.26.14566

R. Cheynier, S. Henrichwark, F. Hadida, E. Pelletier, E. Oksenhendler et al., HIV and T cell expansion in splenic white pulps is accompanied by infiltration of HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes, Cell, vol.78, issue.3, pp.373-387, 1994.
DOI : 10.1016/0092-8674(94)90417-0

W. L. Ince, P. R. Harrington, G. L. Schnell, M. Patel-chhabra, C. L. Burch et al., Major Coexisting Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 env Gene Subpopulations in the Peripheral Blood Are Produced by Cells with Similar Turnover Rates and Show Little Evidence of Genetic Compartmentalization, Journal of Virology, vol.83, issue.9, pp.4068-4080, 2009.
DOI : 10.1128/JVI.02486-08

G. Pantaleo, C. Graziosi, J. F. Demarest, O. J. Cohen, M. Vaccarezza et al., Role of Lymphoid Organs in the Pathogenesis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection, Immunological Reviews, vol.321, issue.1, pp.105-130, 1994.
DOI : 10.1016/S0140-6736(86)92808-4

A. Blauvelt, H. Asada, M. W. Saville, V. Klaus-kovtun, D. J. Altman et al., Productive infection of dendritic cells by HIV-1 and their ability to capture virus are mediated through separate pathways., Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol.100, issue.8, pp.2043-2053, 1997.
DOI : 10.1172/JCI119737

S. Lagaye, M. Derrien, E. Menu, C. Coito, E. Tresoldi et al., Cell-to-Cell Contact Results in a Selective Translocation of Maternal Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Quasispecies across a Trophoblastic Barrier by both Transcytosis and Infection, Journal of Virology, vol.75, issue.10, pp.4780-4791, 2001.
DOI : 10.1128/JVI.75.10.4780-4791.2001

M. Cavrois, J. Neidleman, and W. C. Greene, The Achilles Heel of the Trojan Horse Model of HIV-1 trans-Infection, PLoS Pathogens, vol.164, issue.6, 2008.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000051.t001

T. B. Geijtenbeek, D. S. Kwon, R. Torensma, S. J. Van-vliet, G. C. Van-duijnhoven et al., DC-SIGN, a Dendritic Cell???Specific HIV-1-Binding Protein that Enhances trans-Infection of T Cells, Cell, vol.100, issue.5, pp.587-597, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80694-7

D. S. Kwon, G. Gregorio, N. Bitton, W. A. Hendrickson, and D. R. Littman, DC-SIGN-Mediated Internalization of HIV Is Required for Trans-Enhancement of T Cell Infection, Immunity, vol.16, issue.1, pp.135-144, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S1074-7613(02)00259-5

R. W. Sanders, E. C. De-jong, C. E. Baldwin, J. H. Schuitemaker, M. L. Kapsenberg et al., Differential Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 by Distinct Subsets of Effector Dendritic Cells, Journal of Virology, vol.76, issue.15, pp.7812-7821, 2002.
DOI : 10.1128/JVI.76.15.7812-7821.2002

H. J. Yu, M. A. Reuter, and D. Mcdonald, HIV Traffics through a Specialized, Surface-Accessible Intracellular Compartment during trans-Infection of T Cells by Mature Dendritic Cells, PLoS Pathogens, vol.74, issue.8, 2008.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000134.s008

D. Mcdonald, L. Wu, S. M. Bohks, V. N. Kewalramani, D. Unutmaz et al., Recruitment of HIV and Its Receptors to Dendritic Cell-T Cell Junctions, Science, vol.300, issue.5623, 2003.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1084238

W. Hubner, G. P. Mcnerney, P. Chen, B. M. Dale, R. E. Gordon et al., Quantitative 3D Video Microscopy of HIV Transfer Across T Cell Virological Synapses, Science, vol.323, issue.5922, pp.1743-1747, 2009.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1167525

D. Rudnicka, J. Feldmann, F. Porrot, S. Wietgrefe, S. Guadagnini et al., Simultaneous Cell-to-Cell Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus to Multiple Targets through Polysynapses, Journal of Virology, vol.83, issue.12, pp.6234-6246, 2009.
DOI : 10.1128/JVI.00282-09

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-00458065

N. M. Sherer, M. J. Lehmann, L. F. Jimenez-soto, C. Horensavitz, M. Pypaert et al., Retroviruses can establish filopodial bridges for efficient cell-to-cell transmission, Nature Cell Biology, vol.177, issue.3, pp.310-315, 2007.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.63.3.753

S. Sowinski, C. Jolly, O. Berninghausen, M. A. Purbhoo, A. Chauveau et al., Membrane nanotubes physically connect T cells over long distances presenting a novel route for HIV-1 transmission, Nature Cell Biology, vol.8, issue.2, pp.211-219, 2008.
DOI : 10.1074/jbc.C400046200

C. Jolly and Q. J. Sattentau, Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Virological Synapse Formation in T Cells Requires Lipid Raft Integrity, Journal of Virology, vol.79, issue.18, pp.12088-12094, 2005.
DOI : 10.1128/JVI.79.18.12088-12094.2005

A. A. Waheed and E. Freed, Lipids and membrane microdomains in HIV-1 replication, Virus Research, vol.143, issue.2, pp.162-176, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.virusres.2009.04.007

C. Jolly and Q. J. Sattentau, Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Assembly, Budding, and Cell-Cell Spread in T Cells Take Place in Tetraspanin-Enriched Plasma Membrane Domains, Journal of Virology, vol.81, issue.15, pp.7873-7884, 2007.
DOI : 10.1128/JVI.01845-06

D. N. Krementsov, J. Weng, M. Lambele, N. H. Roy, and M. Thali, Tetraspanins regulate cell-to-cell transmission of HIV-1, Retrovirology, vol.6, issue.1, p.64, 2009.
DOI : 10.1186/1742-4690-6-64

J. Weng, D. N. Krementsov, S. Khurana, N. H. Roy, and M. Thali, Formation of Syncytia Is Repressed by Tetraspanins in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Producing Cells, Journal of Virology, vol.83, issue.15, pp.7467-7474, 2009.
DOI : 10.1128/JVI.00163-09

N. Martin, S. Welsch, C. Jolly, J. A. Briggs, D. Vaux et al., Virological Synapse-Mediated Spread of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 between T Cells Is Sensitive to Entry Inhibition, Journal of Virology, vol.84, issue.7, pp.3516-3527, 2010.
DOI : 10.1128/JVI.02651-09

B. Müller, J. Daecke, O. Fackler, M. T. Dittmar, H. Zentgraf et al., Construction and Characterization of a Fluorescently Labeled Infectious Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Derivative, Journal of Virology, vol.78, issue.19, pp.10803-10816, 2004.
DOI : 10.1128/JVI.78.19.10803-10813.2004

S. Ivanchenko, W. J. Godinez, M. Lampe, H. G. Krausslich, R. Eils et al., Dynamics of HIV-1 Assembly and Release, PLoS Pathogens, vol.13, issue.11, p.1000652, 2009.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000652.s016

A. Grakoui, S. K. Bromley, C. Sumen, M. M. Davis, A. S. Shaw et al., The Immunological Synapse: A Molecular Machine Controlling T Cell Activation, Science, vol.285, issue.5425, pp.221-227, 1999.
DOI : 10.1126/science.285.5425.221

T. Igakura, J. C. Stinchcombe, P. K. Goon, G. P. Taylor, J. N. Weber et al., Spread of HTLV-I Between Lymphocytes by Virus-Induced Polarization of the Cytoskeleton, Science, vol.299, issue.5613, pp.1713-1716, 2003.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1080115

D. Depoil, R. Zaru, M. Guiraud, A. Chauveau, J. Harriague et al., Immunological Synapses Are Versatile Structures Enabling Selective T Cell Polarization, Immunity, vol.22, issue.2, pp.185-194, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.immuni.2004.12.010

J. B. Huppa and M. M. Davis, T-cell-antigen recognition and the immunological synapse, Nature Reviews Immunology, vol.3, issue.12, pp.973-983, 2003.
DOI : 10.1038/nri1245

J. R. Kuhn and M. Poenie, Dynamic Polarization of the Microtubule Cytoskeleton during CTL-Mediated Killing, Immunity, vol.16, issue.1, pp.111-121, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S1074-7613(02)00262-5

A. Wiedemann, D. Depoil, M. Faroudi, and S. Valitutti, Cytotoxic T lymphocytes kill multiple targets simultaneously via spatiotemporal uncoupling of lytic and stimulatory synapses, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.103, issue.29, pp.10985-10990, 2006.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.0600651103

A. Trautmann and S. Valitutti, The diversity of immunological synapses, Current Opinion in Immunology, vol.15, issue.3, pp.249-254, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0952-7915(03)00040-2

A. Alcover and M. I. Thoulouze, Biofilm-like extracellular viral assemblies mediate HTLV-1 cell-tocell transmission at virological synapses, Nat. Med, vol.16, pp.83-89, 2010.

S. J. Neil, T. Zang, and P. Bieniasz, Tetherin inhibits retrovirus release and is antagonized by HIV-1 Vpu, Nature, vol.2, issue.7177, pp.425-430, 2008.
DOI : 10.1038/nature06553

P. Bieniasz, Tetherin inhibits HIV-1 release by directly tethering virions to cells, Cell, vol.139, pp.499-511, 2009.

N. Van-damme, D. Goff, C. Katsura, R. L. Jorgenson, R. Mitchell et al., The Interferon-Induced Protein BST-2 Restricts HIV-1 Release and Is Downregulated from the Cell Surface by the Viral Vpu Protein, Cell Host & Microbe, vol.3, issue.4, pp.245-252, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.chom.2008.03.001

N. Casartelli, M. Sourisseau, J. Feldmann, F. Guivel-benhassine, A. Mallet et al., Tetherin Restricts Productive HIV-1 Cell-to-Cell Transmission, PLoS Pathogens, vol.26, issue.6, 2010.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000955.s011

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-00498504

D. R. Larson, M. C. Johnson, W. W. Webb, and V. M. Vogt, Visualization of retrovirus budding with correlated light and electron microscopy, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.102, issue.43, pp.15453-15458, 2005.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.0504812102

N. Jouvenet, P. D. Bieniasz, and S. M. Simon, Imaging the biogenesis of individual HIV-1 virions in live cells, Nature, vol.2, issue.7201, pp.236-240, 2008.
DOI : 10.1038/nature06998

S. Vardhana, K. Choudhuri, R. Varma, and M. L. Dustin, Essential Role of Ubiquitin and TSG101 Protein in Formation and Function of the Central Supramolecular Activation Cluster, Immunity, vol.32, issue.4, pp.531-540, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.immuni.2010.04.005

V. Piguet and Q. Sattentau, Dangerous liaisons at the virological synapse, Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol.114, issue.5, pp.605-610, 2004.
DOI : 10.1172/JCI22812

K. Gousset, S. D. Ablan, L. V. Coren, A. Ono, F. Soheilian et al., Real-Time Visualization of HIV-1 GAG Trafficking in Infected Macrophages, PLoS Pathogens, vol.169, issue.3, 2008.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000015.s010

M. Deneka, A. Pelchen-matthews, R. Byland, E. Ruiz-mateos, and M. Marsh, In macrophages, HIV-1 assembles into an intracellular plasma membrane domain containing the tetraspanins CD81, CD9, and CD53, The Journal of Cell Biology, vol.109, issue.2, pp.329-341, 2007.
DOI : 10.1083/jcb.147.3.599

A. Pelchen-matthews, B. Kramer, and M. Marsh, Infectious HIV-1 assembles in late endosomes in primary macrophages, The Journal of Cell Biology, vol.2, issue.3, pp.443-455, 2003.
DOI : 10.1128/JVI.75.6.2982-2992.2001

A. E. Bennett, K. Narayan, D. Shi, L. M. Hartnell, K. Gousset et al., Ion-Abrasion Scanning Electron Microscopy Reveals Surface-Connected Tubular Conduits in HIV-Infected Macrophages, PLoS Pathogens, vol.42, issue.9, p.1000591, 2009.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000591.s010

S. Welsch, O. T. Keppler, A. Habermann, I. Allespach, J. Krijnse-locker et al., HIV-1 Buds Predominantly at the Plasma Membrane of Primary Human Macrophages, PLoS Pathogens, vol.79, issue.3, p.36, 2007.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.ppat.0030036.sg002

N. Jouvenet, S. J. Neil, C. Bess, M. C. Johnson, C. A. Virgen et al., Plasma Membrane Is the Site of Productive HIV-1 Particle Assembly, PLoS Biology, vol.149, issue.12, p.435, 2006.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pbio.0040435.sv003

J. M. Carr, H. Hocking, P. Li, and C. J. Burrell, Rapid and Efficient Cell-to-Cell Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection from Monocyte-Derived Macrophages to Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes, Virology, vol.265, issue.2, pp.319-329, 1999.
DOI : 10.1006/viro.1999.0047

C. Muratori, A. Sistigu, E. Ruggiero, M. Falchi, I. Bacigalupo et al., Macrophages Transmit Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Products to CD4-Negative Cells: Involvement of Matrix Metalloproteinase 9, Journal of Virology, vol.81, issue.17, pp.9078-9087, 2007.
DOI : 10.1128/JVI.00675-07

M. R. Tardif and M. J. Tremblay, LFA-1 Is a Key Determinant for Preferential Infection of Memory CD4+ T Cells by Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1, Journal of Virology, vol.79, issue.21, pp.13714-13724, 2005.
DOI : 10.1128/JVI.79.21.13714-13724.2005

C. Jolly, I. Mitar, and Q. J. Sattentau, Adhesion Molecule Interactions Facilitate Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Induced Virological Synapse Formation between T Cells, Journal of Virology, vol.81, issue.24, pp.13916-13937, 2007.
DOI : 10.1128/JVI.01585-07

I. Puigdomenech, M. Massanella, N. Izquierdo-useros, R. Ruiz-hernandez, M. Curriu et al., HIV transfer between CD4 T cells does not require LFA-1 binding to ICAM-1 and is governed by the interaction of HIV envelope glycoprotein with CD4, Retrovirology, vol.5, issue.1, p.32, 2008.
DOI : 10.1186/1742-4690-5-32

M. R. Tardif, C. Gilbert, S. Thibault, J. F. Fortin, and M. J. Tremblay, LFA-1 Antagonists as Agents Limiting Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection and Transmission and Potentiating the Effect of the Fusion Inhibitor T-20, Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol.53, issue.11, pp.4656-4666, 2009.
DOI : 10.1128/AAC.00117-09

S. G. Turville, M. Aravantinou, H. Stossel, N. Romani, and M. Robbiani, Resolution of de novo HIV production and trafficking in immature dendritic cells, Nature Methods, vol.69, issue.1, pp.75-85, 2008.
DOI : 10.1006/meth.1997.0487

C. Nobile, D. Rudnicka, M. Hasan, N. Aulner, F. Porrot et al., HIV-1 Nef Inhibits Ruffles, Induces Filopodia, and Modulates Migration of Infected Lymphocytes, Journal of Virology, vol.84, issue.5, pp.2282-2293, 2010.
DOI : 10.1128/JVI.02230-09

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-00458091

S. C. Watkins and R. D. Salter, Functional Connectivity between Immune Cells Mediated by Tunneling Nanotubules, Immunity, vol.23, issue.3, pp.309-318, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.immuni.2005.08.009

B. Onfelt, S. Nedvetzki, R. K. Benninger, M. A. Purbhoo, S. Sowinski et al., Structurally Distinct Membrane Nanotubes between Human Macrophages Support Long-Distance Vesicular Traffic or Surfing of Bacteria, The Journal of Immunology, vol.177, issue.12, pp.8476-8483, 2006.
DOI : 10.4049/jimmunol.177.12.8476

N. Sol-foulon, M. Sourisseau, F. Porrot, M. I. Thoulouze, C. Trouillet et al., ZAP-70 kinase regulates HIV cell-to-cell spread and virological synapse formation, The EMBO Journal, vol.61, issue.2, pp.516-526, 2007.
DOI : 10.1038/sj.emboj.7601509

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-00292789

B. B. Au-yeung, S. Deindl, L. Y. Hsu, E. H. Palacios, S. E. Levin et al., The structure, regulation, and function of ZAP-70, Immunological Reviews, vol.3, issue.1, pp.41-57, 2009.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1600-065X.2008.00753.x

A. Fischer, C. Picard, K. Chemin, S. Dogniaux, F. Le-deist et al., ZAP70: a master regulator of adaptive immunity, Seminars in Immunopathology, vol.19, issue.2, pp.107-123, 2010.
DOI : 10.1007/s00281-010-0196-x

C. Jolly, I. Mitar, and Q. J. Sattentau, Requirement for an Intact T-Cell Actin and Tubulin Cytoskeleton for Efficient Assembly and Spread of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1, Journal of Virology, vol.81, issue.11, pp.5547-5560, 2007.
DOI : 10.1128/JVI.01469-06

R. Pearce-pratt and D. M. Phillips, Studies of Adhesion of Lymphocytic Cells: Implications for Sexual Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus1, Biology of Reproduction, vol.48, issue.3, pp.431-445, 1993.
DOI : 10.1095/biolreprod48.3.431

R. Pearce-pratt, D. Malamud, and D. M. Phillips, Role of the cytoskeleton in cell-to-cell transmission of human immunodeficiency virus, J. Virol, vol.68, pp.2898-2905, 1994.

M. E. Perotti, X. Tan, and D. M. Phillips, Directional budding of human immunodeficiency virus from monocytes, J. Virol, vol.70, pp.5916-5921, 1996.

J. Deschambeault, J. P. Lalonde, G. Cervantes-acosta, R. Lodge, E. A. Cohen et al., Polarized human immunodeficiency virus budding in lymphocytes involves a tyrosine-based signal and favors cell-to-cell viral transmission, J. Virol, vol.73, pp.5010-5017, 1999.

R. Lodge, H. Gottlinger, D. Gabuzda, E. A. Cohen, and G. Lemay, The intracytoplasmic domain of gp41 mediates polarized budding of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in MDCK cells, J. Virol, vol.68, pp.4857-4861, 1994.

J. R. Day, C. Munk, and J. C. Guatelli, The Membrane-Proximal Tyrosine-Based Sorting Signal of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 gp41 Is Required for Optimal Viral Infectivity, Journal of Virology, vol.78, issue.3, pp.1069-1079, 2004.
DOI : 10.1128/JVI.78.3.1069-1079.2004

J. R. Day, N. Van-damme, and J. C. Guatelli, The effect of the membrane-proximal tyrosine-based sorting signal of HIV-1 gp41 on viral infectivity depends on sequences within gp120, Virology, vol.354, issue.2, pp.316-327, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.virol.2006.06.023

R. Lodge, J. P. Lalonde, G. Lemay, and E. A. Cohen, The membrane-proximal intracytoplasmic tyrosine residue of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein is critical for basolateral targeting of viral budding in MDCK cells, The EMBO Journal, vol.16, issue.4, pp.695-705, 1997.
DOI : 10.1093/emboj/16.4.695

J. Jin, N. M. Sherer, G. Heidecker, D. Derse, and W. Mothes, Assembly of the Murine Leukemia Virus Is Directed towards Sites of Cell???Cell Contact, PLoS Biology, vol.104, issue.12, 2009.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pbio.1000163.s018

D. E. Ott, Cellular proteins detected in HIV-1, Reviews in Medical Virology, vol.23, issue.3, pp.159-175, 2008.
DOI : 10.1002/rmv.570

S. Nydegger, S. Khurana, D. N. Krementsov, M. Foti, and M. Thali, Mapping of tetraspanin-enriched microdomains that can function as gateways for HIV-1, The Journal of Cell Biology, vol.8, issue.5, pp.795-807, 2006.
DOI : 10.1083/jcb.200404100

A. Ono and E. Freed, Cell-Type-Dependent Targeting of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Assembly to the Plasma Membrane and the Multivesicular Body, Journal of Virology, vol.78, issue.3, pp.1552-1563, 2004.
DOI : 10.1128/JVI.78.3.1552-1563.2004

M. Sala-valdes, A. Ursa, S. Charrin, E. Rubinstein, M. E. Hemler et al., EWI-2 and EWI-F Link the Tetraspanin Web to the Actin Cytoskeleton through Their Direct Association with Ezrin-Radixin-Moesin Proteins, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.281, issue.28, pp.19665-19675, 2006.
DOI : 10.1074/jbc.M602116200

S. Faure, L. I. Salazar-fontana, M. Semichon, V. L. Tybulewicz, G. Bismuth et al., ERM proteins regulate cytoskeleton relaxation promoting T cell???APC conjugation, Nature Immunology, vol.7, issue.3, pp.272-279, 2004.
DOI : 10.1038/ni1039

R. G. Fehon, A. I. Mcclatchey, and A. Bretscher, Organizing the cell cortex: the role of ERM proteins, Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology, vol.18, issue.4, pp.276-287, 2010.
DOI : 10.1038/nrm2866

J. Delon, K. Kaibuchi, and R. N. Germain, Exclusion of CD43 from the Immunological Synapse Is Mediated by Phosphorylation-Regulated Relocation of the Cytoskeletal Adaptor Moesin, Immunity, vol.15, issue.5, pp.691-701, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S1074-7613(01)00231-X

T. Ilani, C. Khanna, M. Zhou, T. D. Veenstra, and A. Bretscher, Immune synapse formation requires ZAP-70 recruitment by ezrin and CD43 removal by moesin, The Journal of Cell Biology, vol.91, issue.4, pp.733-746, 2007.
DOI : 10.1083/jcb.140.4.885

E. J. Platt, S. L. Kozak, J. P. Durnin, T. J. Hope, and D. Kabat, Rapid Dissociation of HIV-1 from Cultured Cells Severely Limits Infectivity Assays, Causes the Inactivation Ascribed to Entry Inhibitors, and Masks the Inherently High Level of Infectivity of Virions, Journal of Virology, vol.84, issue.6, pp.3106-3110, 2010.
DOI : 10.1128/JVI.01958-09

J. Blanco, B. Bosch, M. T. Fernandez-figueras, J. Barretina, B. Clotet et al., High Level of Coreceptor-independent HIV Transfer Induced by Contacts between Primary CD4 T Cells, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.279, issue.49, pp.51305-51314, 2004.
DOI : 10.1074/jbc.M408547200

M. Massanella, I. Puigdomenech, C. Cabrera, M. T. Fernandez-figueras, A. Aucher et al., Antigp41 antibodies fail to block early events of virological synapses but inhibit HIV spread between T cells, AIDS, vol.23, issue.2, pp.183-188, 2009.
DOI : 10.1097/QAD.0b013e32831ef1a3

P. Gupta, R. Balachandran, M. Ho, A. Enrico, and C. Rinaldo, Cell-to-cell transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in the presence of azidothymidine and neutralizing antibody, J. Virol, vol.63, pp.2361-2365, 1989.

E. Majorovits, M. Nejmeddine, Y. Tanaka, G. P. Taylor, S. D. Fuller et al., Human T-Lymphotropic Virus-1 Visualized at the Virological Synapse by Electron Tomography, PLoS ONE, vol.120, issue.5, p.2251, 2008.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0002251.s009

D. Vendrame, M. Sourisseau, V. Perrin, O. Schwartz, and F. Mammano, Partial Inhibition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Replication by Type I Interferons: Impact of Cell-to-Cell Viral Transfer, Journal of Virology, vol.83, issue.20, pp.10527-10537, 2009.
DOI : 10.1128/JVI.01235-09

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-00458082

B. Bosch, B. Grigorov, J. Senserrich, B. Clotet, J. L. Darlix et al., A clathrin???dynamin-dependent endocytic pathway for the uptake of HIV-1 by direct T cell???T cell transmission, Antiviral Research, vol.80, issue.2, pp.185-193, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.antiviral.2008.06.004

K. Miyauchi, Y. Kim, O. Latinovic, V. Morozov, and G. B. Melikyan, HIV Enters Cells via Endocytosis and Dynamin-Dependent Fusion with Endosomes, Cell, vol.137, issue.3, pp.433-444, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cell.2009.02.046

E. Ruggiero, R. Bona, C. Muratori, and M. Federico, Virological Consequences of Early Events following Cell-Cell Contact between Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Infected and Uninfected CD4+ Cells, Journal of Virology, vol.82, issue.16, pp.7773-7789, 2008.
DOI : 10.1128/JVI.00695-08

G. A. Azar, F. Lemaitre, E. A. Robey, and P. Bousso, Subcellular dynamics of T cell immunological synapses and kinapses in lymph nodes, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.107, issue.8, pp.3675-3680, 2010.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.0905901107

P. W. Denton and J. Garcia, Novel humanized murine models for HIV research, Current HIV/AIDS Reports, vol.9, issue.1, pp.13-19, 2009.
DOI : 10.1007/s11904-009-0003-2

C. Wang, K. Weijer, T. Willinger, and P. Ziegler, Humanized mice for modeling human infectious disease: challenges, progress, and outlook, Cell Host Microbe, vol.6, pp.5-9, 2009.

R. Van-duyne, C. Pedati, I. Guendel, L. Carpio, K. Kehn-hall et al., The utilization of humanized mouse models for the study of human retroviral infections, Retrovirology, vol.6, issue.1, p.76, 2009.
DOI : 10.1186/1742-4690-6-76