J. Anderson, S. Betts, J. Ferris, and J. Fincham, Cognitive and metacognitive activity in mathematical problem solving: prefrontal and parietal patterns, Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, vol.16, issue.5, pp.52-67, 2011.
DOI : 10.3758/s13415-010-0011-0

D. Badre, D. Esposito, and M. , Functional magnetic resonance imaging evidence for a hierarchical organization of the prefrontal cortex, J. Cogn. Neurosci, vol.19, 2007.

D. Badre, B. Doll, N. Long, and M. Frank, Rostrolateral Prefrontal Cortex and Individual Differences in Uncertainty-Driven Exploration, Neuron, vol.73, issue.3, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.neuron.2011.12.025

A. Bandura, Social Foundations of Thought and Action, 1986.
DOI : 10.4135/9781446221129.n6

A. Bandura, Self-efficacy: The Exercise of Control, 1997.

A. Bandura, Social cognition theory: an agentic perspective, Annu. Rev. Psychol, vol.2, pp.1-26, 2001.

A. Bandura, C. , and D. , Self-evaluative and self-efficacy mechanisms governing the motivational effects of goal systems., Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol.45, issue.5, 1983.
DOI : 10.1037/0022-3514.45.5.1017

P. Black and J. Jones, Formative assessment and the learning and teaching of MFL: sharing the language learning road map with the learners, Language Learning Journal, vol.31, issue.1, pp.4-9, 2006.
DOI : 10.1002/tea.3660110202

P. Black and D. Wiliam, Inside the Black Box: Raising Standards through Classroom Assessment, Phi Delta Kappan, vol.79, issue.1, pp.139-148, 1998.
DOI : 10.1177/003172171009200119

P. Black and D. Wiliam, Developing the theory of formative assessment, Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability, vol.54, issue.2, pp.5-31, 2009.
DOI : 10.1007/s11092-008-9068-5

C. Blair, Stress and the Development of Self-Regulation in Context, Child Development Perspectives, vol.68, issue.3, pp.181-188, 2010.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1750-8606.2010.00145.x

E. B. Bloss, W. G. Janssen, B. S. Mcewen, and J. H. Morrison, Interactive Effects of Stress and Aging on Structural Plasticity in the Prefrontal Cortex, Journal of Neuroscience, vol.30, issue.19, pp.6726-6731, 2010.
DOI : 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0759-10.2010

W. Boyce, E. , B. Bullock, D. Tan, C. O. et al., Biological sensitivity to contexts: I. An evolutionary-developmental theory of the origins and functions of stress reactivity Computational perspectives on forebrain microcircuits implicated in reinforcement learning, action selection, and cognitive control, Dev. Psychopathy Neural Netw, vol.17, issue.22, pp.271-301, 2005.

S. Bunge, C. Wendelken, D. Badre, A. Wagner, P. Burgess et al., Analogical Reasoning and Prefrontal Cortex: Evidence for Separable Retrieval and Integration Mechanisms, Cerebral Cortex, vol.15, issue.3, pp.239-249, 2005.
DOI : 10.1093/cercor/bhh126

J. Burrus and R. Roberts, Dropping out of High School: Prevalence, Risk Factors, Remediation Strategies Available at: https://www.ets.org, 2012.

D. L. Butler, W. , and P. H. , Feedback and Self-Regulated Learning: A Theoretical Synthesis, Review of Educational Research, vol.65, issue.3, pp.245-281, 1995.
DOI : 10.3102/00346543065003245

P. Carruthers, R. Cera, M. Mancini, A. J. Antonietti, F. Mailliet et al., How we know our own minds: The relationship between mindreading and metacognition, Behavioral and Brain Sciences, vol.16, issue.02, pp.121-138, 2007.
DOI : 10.1192/bjp.111.473.316

J. Changeux, P. Courrége, and A. Danchin, A Theory of the Epigenesis of Neuronal Networks by Selective Stabilization of Synapses, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.70, issue.10, pp.2974-2978, 1973.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.70.10.2974

J. Chein and W. Schneider, The Brain???s Learning and Control Architecture, Current Directions in Psychological Science, vol.4, issue.2, pp.78-84, 2012.
DOI : 10.1037/0033-295X.84.2.127

K. Christoff and J. Gabrieli, The frontopolar cortex and human cognition: evidence for a rostrocaudal hierarchical organization within the human prefrontal cortex, Psychobiology, vol.283758, pp.168-186, 2000.

I. Clark, Formative Assessment: Assessment Is for Self-regulated Learning, Educational Psychology Review, vol.23, issue.4, pp.205-249, 2012.
DOI : 10.1007/s10648-011-9191-6

I. Clark, Equitable learning outcomes: Supporting economically and culturally disadvantaged students in ???formative learning environments???, Improving Schools, vol.28, issue.1, pp.1-27, 2014.
DOI : 10.3102/00028312023004614

I. Clark, Formative assessment: translating high-level curriculum principles into classroom practice, The Curriculum Journal, vol.11, issue.1, 2015.
DOI : 10.1017/S0140525??12000660

I. Clark and G. Dumas, Toward a neural basis for peer-interaction: what makes peer-learning tick?, Frontiers in Psychology, vol.63, 2015.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1440-1819.2009.01944.x

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-01342844

T. Cleary and B. Zimmerman, Self-regulation empowerment program: A school-based program to enhance self-regulated and self-motivated cycles of student learning, Psychology in the Schools, vol.80, issue.5, pp.537-550, 2004.
DOI : 10.1002/pits.10177

M. Cole, A. Bagic, R. Kass, and W. Scheider, Prefrontal Dynamics Underlying Rapid Instructed Task Learning Reverse with Practice, Journal of Neuroscience, vol.30, issue.42, pp.14245-14254, 2010.
DOI : 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1662-10.2010

C. Constantinidis, G. V. Williams, and P. S. Goldman-rakic, A role for inhibition in shaping the temporal flow of information in prefrontal cortex, Nature Neuroscience, vol.5, issue.2, pp.175-180, 1038.
DOI : 10.1038/nn799

S. Coutinho, Self efficacy, meta-cognition and performance. North Am, J. Psychol, vol.10, pp.165-172, 2008.

F. I. Craik and E. Bialystok, Cognition through the lifespan: mechanisms of change, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, vol.10, issue.3, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.tics.2006.01.007

G. Deco, T. Rolls, and E. , Synaptic and Spiking Dynamics underlying Reward Reversal in the Orbitofrontal Cortex, Cerebral Cortex, vol.15, issue.1, pp.15-30, 2004.
DOI : 10.1093/cercor/bhh103

D. Cul, A. Dehaene, S. Reyes, P. Bravo, E. Slachevsky et al., Causal role of prefrontal cortex in the threshold for access to consciousness Normal development of the PFC from birth to young adulthood: cognitive functions, anatomy and biochemistry, Principles of Frontal Lobe Function, pp.466-503, 2002.

Z. Dienes, Subjective measures of unconscious knowledge, Prog. Brain Res, vol.168, issue.07, pp.49-64, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/S0079-6123(07)68005-4

C. Dignath, G. Buettner, and H. Langfeldt, How can primary school students learn self-regulated learning strategies most effectively?, Educational Research Review, vol.3, issue.2, pp.101-129, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.edurev.2008.02.003

R. Duman, Neural plasticity: consequences of stress and actions of antidepressant treatment, Dialogues Clin. Neurosci, vol.6, pp.157-169, 2004.

G. Dumas, J. Nadel, R. Soussignan, J. Martinerie, and L. Garnero, Interbrain synchronization during social interaction, PLoS ONE, 2010.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00679917

I. Dumontheil, P. Burgess, and S. Blachemore, Development of rostral prefrontal cortex and cognitive and behavioural disorders. Dev. Med. Child Neurosci Motivational processes affecting learning, Am. Psychol, vol.50, issue.4, pp.168-181, 1986.

C. S. Dweck, Mind-set: The New Psychology of Success, 2006.

D. A. Fair, A. L. Cohen, J. D. Power, N. U. Dosenbach, J. A. Church et al., Functional Brain Networks Develop from a ???Local to Distributed??? Organization, PLoS Computational Biology, vol.57, issue.5, 2009.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000381.s009

S. Fecteau, D. Knoch, F. Fregn, N. Sultani, P. Baggio et al., Diminishing Risk-Taking Behavior by Modulating Activity in the Prefrontal Cortex: A Direct Current Stimulation Study, Journal of Neuroscience, vol.27, issue.46, pp.12500-12505, 2007.
DOI : 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3283-07.2007

J. H. Flavell, meta-cognitive aspects of problem solving, The Nature of Intelligence, pp.231-236, 1976.

J. Flavell, Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: A new area of cognitive-developmental inquiry., American Psychologist, vol.34, issue.10, pp.906-911, 1979.
DOI : 10.1037/0003-066X.34.10.906

J. Flavell and H. Wellman, Metamemory, Perspectives on the Development of Memory and Cognition, pp.3-33, 1977.

S. Fleming and R. Dolan, The neural basis of metacognitive ability, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol.29, issue.27, pp.1338-1349, 2012.
DOI : 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5984-08.2009

S. Fleming, J. Huijgens, and R. Dolan, Prefrontal Contributions to Metacognition in Perceptual Decision Making, Journal of Neuroscience, vol.32, issue.18, pp.6117-6125, 2012.
DOI : 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.6489-11.2012

S. Fleming, R. Jihye, J. Golfinos, K. Blackmon, S. Fleming et al., Domain-specific impairment in meta-cognitive accuracy following anterior prefrontal lesions Relating introspection accuracy to individual differences in brain structure, Brain Science, vol.137, issue.329, pp.2811-2822, 2010.

C. Forbes and J. Grafman, The Role of the Human Prefrontal Cortex in Social Cognition and Moral Judgment, Annual Review of Neuroscience, vol.33, issue.1, pp.299-324, 2010.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev-neuro-060909-153230

C. Frith, The role of meta-cognition in human social interactions, Philos Trans. B, vol.367, 2012.

J. Garrison, Dissociable Neural Networks Supporting Metacognition for Memory and Perception, Journal of Neuroscience, vol.34, issue.8, pp.2765-2767, 2014.
DOI : 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5232-13.2014

M. Garvert, M. Moutoussis, I. Kurth-nelson, T. Behrens, and R. Dolan, Learning-Induced Plasticity in Medial Prefrontal Cortex Predicts Preference Malleability, Neuron, vol.85, issue.2, pp.418-428, 2015.
DOI : 10.1016/j.neuron.2014.12.033

R. Gilman and E. Anderman, Motivation and its relevance to school psychology: An introduction to the special issue, Journal of School Psychology, vol.44, issue.5, pp.325-329, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jsp.2006.04.006

A. Gopnik and J. And-astington, Children's Understanding of Representational Change and Its Relation to the Understanding of False Belief and the Appearance-Reality Distinction, Child Development, vol.59, issue.1, pp.26-37, 1988.
DOI : 10.2307/1130386

U. Goswami, Neuroscience and education, British Journal of Educational Psychology, vol.74, issue.1, pp.1-14, 2004.
DOI : 10.1348/000709904322848798

U. Goswami, Neuroscience and education: from research to practice?, Nature Reviews Neuroscience, vol.29, issue.5, pp.406-411, 2006.
DOI : 10.1038/nrn1907

D. Hacker, J. Dunlosky, and A. Graesser, Handbook of Meta-cognition in Education, 2009.

W. Harlen, The Role of Assessment in Developing Motivation for Learning, Assessment and Learning: Sage), pp.61-80, 2006.
DOI : 10.4135/9781446250808.n11

M. Hasselhorn and A. Labuhn, meta-cognition and self-regulated learning, Encyclopedia of Adolescence, pp.223-230, 2011.

J. Hattie and H. Timperley, The Power of Feedback, Review of Educational Research, vol.77, issue.1, pp.81-112, 2007.
DOI : 10.3102/003465430298487

M. Hogan, R. Staff, B. Bunting, A. Murray, T. Ahearn et al., Cerebellar brain volume accounts for variance in cognitive performance in older adults, Cortex, vol.47, issue.4, pp.441-450, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cortex.2010.01.001

A. Holmes and C. Wellman, Stress-induced prefrontal reorganization and executive dysfunction in rodents, Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, vol.33, issue.6, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2008.11.005

J. C. Horton, A. , and D. L. , The cortical column: a structure without a function, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol.1, issue.5, pp.837-862, 2005.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1460-9568.1989.tb00356.x

B. Hoskins and U. Fredriksson, Learning to learn: What is it and can it be measured? European Commission Joint Research Centre, Institute for the Protection and Security of the Citizen, Centre for Research on Lifelong Learning (CRELL), 2008.

A. Ikkai, C. , and C. , Common neural mechanisms supporting spatial working memory, attention and motor intention, Neuropsychologia, vol.49, issue.6, pp.1428-1434, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2010.12.020

P. Jackson, E. Brunet, A. Meltzoff, and J. Decety, Empathy examined through the neural mechanisms involved in imagining how I feel versus how you feel pain, Neuropsychologia, vol.44, issue.5, pp.752-761, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2005.07.015

T. Klingberg, C. Vaidya, J. Gabrieli, M. Moseley, and M. Hedehus, Myelination and organization of the frontal white matter in children, NeuroReport, vol.10, issue.13, pp.2817-2821, 1999.
DOI : 10.1097/00001756-199909090-00022

E. Koechlin and A. Hyafil, Anterior Prefrontal Function and the Limits of Human Decision-Making, Science, vol.318, issue.5850, 2007.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1142995

K. Konrad, S. Neufang, C. Thiel, K. Specht, C. Hanisch et al., Development of attentional networks: An fMRI study with children and adults, NeuroImage, vol.28, issue.2, pp.429-439, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2005.06.065

A. Koriat, meta-cognition and consciousness, " in The Cambridge Handbook of Consciousness, pp.289-326, 2007.

J. Kounios, J. Fleck, D. Green, L. Payne, J. Stevenson et al., The origins of insight in resting-state brain activity, Neuropsychologia, vol.46, issue.1, pp.281-291, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2007.07.013

J. Kruger and D. Dunning, Unskilled and unaware of it: How difficulties in recognizing one's own incompetence lead to inflated self-assessments., Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol.77, issue.6, pp.1121-1134, 1999.
DOI : 10.1037/0022-3514.77.6.1121

H. Lau and D. Rosenthal, Empirical support for higher-order theories of conscious awareness, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, vol.15, issue.8, pp.365-373, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.tics.2011.05.009

M. Lodico, The effects of strategy???Monitoring training on children's selection of effective memory strategies, Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, vol.35, issue.2, pp.263-277, 1983.
DOI : 10.1016/0022-0965(83)90083-8

G. Mccaig, M. Dixon, K. Keramatian, L. Lui, C. et al., Improved modulation of rostrolateral prefrontal cortex using real-time fMRI training and meta-cognitive awareness, NeuroImage, vol.55, issue.3, pp.1298-1305, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.12.016

L. Mccurdy, B. Maniscalto, J. Metcalfe, K. Liu, F. De-lange et al., Anatomical Coupling between Distinct Metacognitive Systems for Memory and Visual Perception, Journal of Neuroscience, vol.33, issue.5, pp.1897-1906, 2013.
DOI : 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1890-12.2013

C. Mcintyre and B. Roozendaal, Adrenal Stress Hormones and Enhanced Memory for Emotionally Arousing Experiences, Neural Plasticity and Memory, pp.13-14, 2007.
DOI : 10.1201/9781420008418.ch13

M. Meaney and M. Szyf, Environmental programming of stress responses through DNA methylation: life at the interface between a dynamic environment and a fixed genome, Dialogues Clin. Neurosci, vol.7, pp.103-123, 2005.

P. G. Middlebrooks and M. A. Sommer, Neuronal Correlates of Metacognition in Primate Frontal Cortex, Neuron, vol.75, issue.3, pp.517-530, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.neuron.2012.05.028

M. Milkie, W. , and C. , Classroom Learning Environments and the Mental Health of First Grade Children, Journal of Health and Social Behavior, vol.73, issue.1, pp.4-22, 2011.
DOI : 10.2307/1165280

I. Molnar-szakacs and L. Uddin, Self-Processing and the Default Mode Network: Interactions with the Mirror Neuron System, Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, vol.7, 2013.
DOI : 10.3389/fnhum.2013.00571

V. B. Mountcastle, The columnar organization of the neocortex, Brain, vol.120, issue.4, pp.701-722, 1997.
DOI : 10.1093/brain/120.4.701

E. Morsella, L. Wilson, C. Berger, M. Honhongua, A. Gazzaley et al., Subjective aspects of cognitive control at different stages of processing, Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, vol.71, issue.8, pp.18-24, 2009.
DOI : 10.3758/APP.71.8.1807

C. Nelson, Neural Plasticity and Human Development, Current Directions in Psychological Science, vol.271, issue.2, pp.42-45, 1999.
DOI : 10.1111/1467-8721.00010

T. Nelson and L. Narens, Metamemory: A Theoretical Framework and New Findings, The Psychology of Learning and Motivation: Advances in Research and Theory, pp.125-173, 1990.
DOI : 10.1016/S0079-7421(08)60053-5

D. J. Nicol and D. Macfarlane-dick, Formative assessment and self???regulated learning: a model and seven principles of good feedback practice, Studies in Higher Education, vol.11, issue.2, pp.199-218, 2006.
DOI : 10.1080/1234567032000164859

I. Opris and M. F. Casanova, Prefrontal cortical minicolumn: from executive control to disrupted cognitive processing, Brain, vol.137, issue.7, pp.1863-1875, 2014.
DOI : 10.1093/brain/awt359

S. J. Pickering, H. , P. A. Pintrich, P. R. Zusho, and A. , Educators' views of the role of neuroscience in education: a study of UK and international perspectives Mind Brain Educ The development of academic selfregulation: the role of cognitive and motivational factors, Development of Achievement Motivation, pp.109-113, 2002.

S. D. Preston, F. B. De-waal, and E. Pronin, Empathy: its ultimate and proximate bases Perception and misperception of bias in human judgement, Behav. Brain Sci. Trends Cogn. Sci, vol.25, issue.11, pp.1-20, 2002.

G. J. Rinkus, A cortical sparse distributed coding model linking mini- and macrocolumn-scale functionality, Frontiers in Neuroanatomy, 2010.
DOI : 10.3389/fnana.2010.00017

E. Rounis, B. Maniscalio, J. Rothwell, R. Passinghan, and H. Lau, Theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation to the prefrontal cortex impairs metacognitive visual awareness, Cognitive Neuroscience, vol.22, issue.3, pp.165-175, 1080.
DOI : 10.1097/00001756-200411150-00024

D. R. Sadler, T. Schmitz, H. Rowley, T. Kawahara, J. et al., Formative assessment and the design of instructional systems, Instructional Science, vol.76, issue.4, pp.119-144, 1989.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00117714

D. Schön, Educating the Reflective Practitioner, 1987.

G. Schraw and D. Moshman, Metacognitive theories, Educational Psychology Review, vol.82, issue.4, pp.351-371, 1995.
DOI : 10.1007/BF02212307

B. Schwartz and J. Metcalfe, Methodological problems and pitfalls in the study of human meta-cognition, Meta-cognition: Knowing About Knowing, pp.93-114, 1996.

D. Schnyer, M. Verfaellie, M. Alexander, G. Lafleche, L. Nicholls et al., A role for right medial prefrontal cortex in accurate feeling-of-knowing judgments: evidence from patients with lesions to frontal cortex, Neuropsychologia, vol.42, issue.7, pp.957-966, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2003.11.020

T. Sharot, A. Riccardi, R. , and C. , Neural mechanisms mediating optimism bias The study of animal meta-cognition, Nature Trends Cogn. Sci, vol.450, issue.13, pp.102-105, 2007.

B. Sodian, C. Theomer, D. , and N. , Two- to four-year-old children's differentiation of knowing and guessing in a non-verbal task, European Journal of Developmental Psychology, vol.95, issue.3, pp.222-237, 1080.
DOI : 10.2307/1130318

E. Sowell, P. Thompson, C. Leonard, S. Welcome, E. Kan et al., Longitudinal Mapping of Cortical Thickness and Brain Growth in Normal Children, Journal of Neuroscience, vol.24, issue.38, pp.8223-8231, 2004.
DOI : 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1798-04.2004

D. Stuss, Functions of the Frontal Lobes: Relation to Executive Functions, Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, vol.12, issue.05, pp.759-765, 2011.
DOI : 10.1098/rstb.1996.0124

K. Supekar, L. Uddin, K. Prater, H. Amin, M. Greicus et al., Development of functional and structural connectivity within the default mode network in young children, NeuroImage, vol.52, issue.1, pp.290-301, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.04.009

K. Teffer and K. Semendeferi, Human prefrontal cortex, Prog. Brain Res, vol.195, pp.191-218, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/B978-0-444-53860-4.00009-X

L. S. Vygotsky, Mind in Society: The Development of Higher Psychological Processes, 1978.

M. E. Walton, J. T. Devlin, and M. F. Rushworth, Interactions between decision making and performance monitoring within prefrontal cortex, Nature Neuroscience, vol.33, issue.11, pp.1259-1265, 2004.
DOI : 10.1006/nimg.2001.0931

M. Weinstock, Alterations induced by gestational stress in brain morphology and behaviour of the offspring, Progress in Neurobiology, vol.65, issue.5, pp.427-451, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S0301-0082(01)00018-1

D. T. Willingham, Three problems in the marriage of neuroscience and education, Cortex, vol.45, issue.4, pp.544-545, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cortex.2008.05.009

D. J. Wood, J. S. Bruner, R. G. Miura, N. Watanabe, J. Takemoto et al., THE ROLE OF TUTORING IN PROBLEM SOLVING, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, vol.51, issue.1, pp.89-100, 1976.
DOI : 10.1037/h0033144

G. Zacharopoulos, N. Binetti, V. Walsh, and R. Kanai, The effect of self-efficacy on visial discrimination sensitivity, PLoS ONE, vol.9, 2014.

B. J. Zimmerman and A. Kitsantas, Homework practices and academic achievement: The mediating role of self-efficacy and perceived responsibility beliefs, Contemporary Educational Psychology, vol.30, issue.4, pp.397-417, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cedpsych.2005.05.003

B. J. Zimmerman and A. Moylan, Self-regulation: where meta-cognition and motivation intersect, Handbook of Meta-cognition in Education, pp.299-315, 2009.

B. J. Zimmerman and M. M. Pons, Development of a Structured Interview for Assessing Student Use of Self-Regulated Learning Strategies, American Educational Research Journal, vol.23, issue.4, pp.614-628, 1986.
DOI : 10.3102/00028312023004614