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Reducing hypoxia and inflammation during invasive pulmonary aspergillosis by targeting the Interleukin-1 receptor

Abstract : 1 Hypoxia as a result of pulmonary tissue damage due to unresolved inflammation during invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is associated with a poor outcome. Aspergillus fumigatus can exploit the hypoxic microenvironment in the lung, but the inflammatory response required for fungal clearance can become severely disregulated as a result of hypoxia. Since severe inflammation can be detrimental to the host, we investigated whether targeting the interleukin IL-1 pathway could reduce inflammation and tissue hypoxia, improving the outcome of IPA. The interplay between hypoxia and inflammation was investigated by in vivo imaging of hypoxia and measurement of cytokines in the lungs in a model of corticosteroid immunocompromised and in Cxcr2 deficient mice. Severe hypoxia was observed following Aspergillus infection in both models and correlated with development of pulmonary inflammation and expression of hypoxia specific transcripts. Treatment with IL-1 receptor antagonist reduced hypoxia and slightly, but significantly reduced mortality in immunosuppressed mice, but was unable to reduce hypoxia in Cxcr2 −/− mice. Our data provides evidence that the inflammatory response during invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, and in particular the IL-1 axis, drives the development of hypoxia. Targeting the inflammatory IL-1 response could be used as a potential immunomodulatory therapy to improve the outcome of aspergillosis. Humans continuously inhale spores of the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus, which is a ubiquitous mould in soil and decaying organic debris. Although rarely causing disease in immunocompetent individuals, A. fumigatus can cause lethal invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in immunocompromised patients, with mortality varying between 30% and 90%
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Mark S. Gresnigt, Abdessalem Rekiki, Orhan Rasid, Amélie Savers, Grégory Jouvion, et al.. Reducing hypoxia and inflammation during invasive pulmonary aspergillosis by targeting the Interleukin-1 receptor. Scientific Reports, Nature Publishing Group, 2016, 6, pp.26490. ⟨10.1038/srep26490⟩. ⟨pasteur-01321334⟩

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