F. M. Ausubel, F. M. Ausubel, R. Brent, R. E. Kingston, D. D. Moore et al., Preparation and analysis of DNA, Short Protocols in Molecular Biology, pp.2-3, 1995.

C. Baker-austin, L. Stockley, R. Rangdale, and J. Martinez-urtaza, Environmental occurrence and clinical impact of Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus: a European perspective, Environmental Microbiology Reports, vol.68, issue.1, pp.7-18, 2010.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1758-2229.2009.00096.x

L. A. Brauns, M. C. Hudson, and J. D. Oliver, Use of the polymerase chain reaction in detection of culturable and nonculturable Vibrio vulnificus cells, Appl. Environ. Microbiol, vol.57, pp.2651-2655, 1991.

K. Cankar, D. Stebih, T. Dreo, J. Zel, and K. Gruden, Critical points of DNA quantification by real-time PCR-effects of DNA extraction method and sample matrix on quantification of genetically modified organisms, BCM Biotechnol, vol.6, pp.1-15, 2006.

I. Canigral, Y. Moreno, J. L. Alonso, A. Gonzalez, and M. A. Ferrus, Detection of Vibrio vulnificus in seafood, seawater and wastewater samples from a Mediterranean coastal area, Microbiological Research, vol.165, issue.8, pp.657-664, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.micres.2009.11.012

F. Cantet, D. Hervio-heath, A. Caro, L. Mennec, C. Monteil et al., Quantification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae in French Mediterranean coastal lagoons, Research in Microbiology, vol.164, issue.8, pp.867-874, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.resmic.2013.06.005

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01188859

J. Castro-rosas and E. F. Escartin, Adhesion and Colonization of Vibrio cholerae O1 on Shrimp and Crab Carapaces, Journal of Food Protection, vol.65, issue.3, pp.492-498, 2002.
DOI : 10.4315/0362-028X-65.3.492

C. Cazorla, A. Guigon, M. Noel, M. L. Quilici, and F. Lacassin, Infection Associated with Eating Raw Oysters, New Caledonia, Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol.17, issue.1, pp.136-137, 2011.
DOI : 10.3201/eid1701.100603

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-01136365

J. Chun, A. Huq, and R. R. Colwell, Analysis of 16S?23S rRNA intergenic spacer regions of Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio mimicus, Appl. Environ. Microbiol, vol.65, pp.2202-2208, 1999.

R. R. Colwell, Vibrios in the Environment, 1984.

B. Collin and A. S. Rehnstam-holm, Occurrence and potential pathogenesis of Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus on the South Coast of Sweden, FEMS Microbiology Ecology, vol.78, issue.2, pp.306-313, 2011.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1574-6941.2011.01157.x

S. Copin, A. Robert-pillot, P. Malle, M. L. Quilici, and M. Gay, Evaluation of Most-Probable-Number???PCR Method with Internal Amplification Control for the Counting of Total and Pathogenic <I>Vibrio parahaemolyticus</I> in Frozen Shrimps, Journal of Food Protection, vol.75, issue.1, pp.150-153, 2012.
DOI : 10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-11-165

N. A. Daniels, L. Mackinnon, R. Bishop, S. Altekruse, B. Ray et al., Infections in the United States, 1973???1998, Vibrio parahaemolyticus infections in the United States, pp.1661-1666, 1973.
DOI : 10.1086/315459

A. Depaola, J. L. Nordstrom, J. C. Bowers, J. G. Wells, and D. W. Cook, Seasonal Abundance of Total and Pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Alabama Oysters, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol.69, issue.3, pp.1521-1526, 2003.
DOI : 10.1128/AEM.69.3.1521-1526.2003

D. Food and . Administration, Vibrio parahaemolyticus Risk Assessment: Quantitative Risk Assessment on the Public Health Impact of Pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Raw Oysters. Food and Drug Administration, 2005.

P. I. Fields, T. Popovic, K. Wachsmuch, and O. Olsvik, Use of polymerase chain reaction for detection of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 strains from the Latin American cholera epidemic, J. Clin. Microbiol, vol.30, pp.2118-2121, 1992.

K. V. Gordon, M. C. Vickery, A. Depaola, C. Staley, and V. J. Harwood, Real-Time PCR Assays for Quantification and Differentiation of Vibrio vulnificus Strains in Oysters and Water, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol.74, issue.6, pp.1704-1709, 2008.
DOI : 10.1128/AEM.01100-07

S. Gopal, S. K. Otta, S. Kumar, I. Karunasagar, and M. Nishibuchi, The occurrence of Vibrio species in tropical shrimp culture environments; implications for food safety, International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol.102, issue.2, pp.151-159, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2004.12.011

D. Hervio-heath, R. R. Colwell, A. Derrien, A. Robert-pillot, J. M. Fournier et al., Occurrence of pathogenic vibrios in coastal areas of France, Journal of Applied Microbiology, vol.58, issue.6, pp.1123-1135, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0043-1354(99)00105-0

G. E. Kaufman, G. M. Blackstone, M. C. Vickery, A. K. Bej, J. Bowers et al., Real-Time PCR Quantification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Oysters Using an Alternative Matrix, Journal of Food Protection, vol.67, issue.11, pp.2424-2429, 2004.
DOI : 10.4315/0362-028X-67.11.2424

P. S. Mead, L. Slutsker, V. Dietz, L. F. Mccaig, J. S. Bresee et al., Food-Related Illness and Death in the United States, Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol.5, issue.5, pp.607-625, 1999.
DOI : 10.3201/eid0505.990502

. Morbidity, Cholera Epidemic Associated with Raw Vegetables ? Lusaka, Zambia, Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), pp.2003-2004, 2004.

M. W. Morbidity and . Report, Incidence and Trends of Infection with Pathogens Transmitted Commonly Through Food ? Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network, 10 U.S. Sites, pp.2006-2013, 2014.

G. B. Nair, T. Rammamurthy, S. K. Bhattacharya, B. Dutta, Y. Takeda et al., Global Dissemination of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Serotype O3:K6 and Its Serovariants, Clinical Microbiology Reviews, vol.20, issue.1, pp.39-48, 2007.
DOI : 10.1128/CMR.00025-06

A. Newton, M. Kendall, D. J. Vugia, O. L. Henao, and B. E. Mahon, Increasing Rates of Vibriosis in the United States, 1996-2010: Review of Surveillance Data From 2 Systems, Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol.54, issue.suppl 5, pp.391-395, 1996.
DOI : 10.1093/cid/cis243

M. Nishibuchi, T. Taniguchi, T. Misawa, V. Khaeomanee-iam, T. Honda et al., Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the gene (trh) encoding the hemolysin related to the thermostable direct hemolysin of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Infect. Immun, vol.57, pp.2691-2697, 1989.

J. L. Nordstrom, M. C. Vickery, G. M. Blackstone, S. L. Murray, and A. Depaola, Development of a Multiplex Real-Time PCR Assay with an Internal Amplification Control for the Detection of Total and Pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus Bacteria in Oysters, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol.73, issue.18, pp.5840-5847, 2007.
DOI : 10.1128/AEM.00460-07

D. Ottaviani, F. Leoni, E. Rocchegiani, C. Canonico, S. S. Santarelli et al., Prevalence and virulence properties of non-O1 non-O139 Vibrio cholerae strains from seafood and clinical samples collected in Italy, International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol.132, issue.1, pp.47-53, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2009.03.014

D. Ottaviani, F. Leoni, E. Rocchegiani, R. Mioni, A. Costa et al., in Italian marine coastal waters, Environmental Microbiology, vol.56, issue.5, pp.1377-1386, 2012.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1462-2920.2012.02839.x

M. L. Quilici, A. Robert-pillot, J. Picart, and J. M. Fournier, O3:K6 Spread, France, Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol.11, issue.7, pp.1148-1149, 2005.
DOI : 10.3201/eid1107.041008

I. N. Rivera, J. Chun, A. Huq, R. B. Sack, and R. R. Colwell, Genotypes Associated with Virulence in Environmental Isolates of Vibrio cholerae, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol.67, issue.6, pp.2421-2429, 2001.
DOI : 10.1128/AEM.67.6.2421-2429.2001

A. Robert-pillot, S. Copin, M. Gay, P. Malle, and M. L. Quilici, Total and pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in shrimp: Fast and reliable quantification by real-time PCR, International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol.143, issue.3, pp.190-197, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2010.08.016

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-01136374

A. Robert-pillot, A. Guénolé, J. Lesne, R. Delesmont, J. M. Fournier et al., Occurrence of the tdh and trh genes in Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates from waters and raw shellfish collected in two French coastal areas and from seafood imported into France, International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol.91, issue.3, pp.319-325, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2003.07.006

A. Roque, C. Lopez-joven, B. Lacuesta, L. Elandaloussi, S. Wagley et al., Detection and Identification of tdh- and trh-Positive Vibrio parahaemolyticus Strains from Four Species of Cultured Bivalve Molluscs on the Spanish Mediterranean Coast, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol.75, issue.23, pp.7574-7577, 2009.
DOI : 10.1128/AEM.00772-09

J. P. Rosec, V. Causse, B. Cruz, J. Rauzier, and L. Carnat, The international standard ISO/TS 21872???1 to study the occurence of total and pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio cholerae in seafood: ITS improvement by use of a chromogenic medium and PCR, International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol.157, issue.2, pp.189-194, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2012.04.026

K. Schärer, S. Savioz, N. Cernela, G. Saegesser, and R. Stephan, Occurrence of Vibrio spp. in Fish and Shellfish Collected from the Swiss Market, Journal of Food Protection, vol.74, issue.8, pp.1345-1347, 2011.
DOI : 10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-11-001

L. Serracca, R. Battistini, I. Rossini, M. Prearo, D. Ottaviani et al., Vibrio virulence genes in fishes collected from estuarine waters in Italy, Letters in Applied Microbiology, vol.98, issue.4, pp.403-408, 2011.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1472-765X.2011.03119.x

Z. Tao, A. M. Larsen, T. L. Bullard, S. A. Wright, A. C. Arias et al., Prevalence and Population Structure of Vibrio vulnificus on Fishes from the Northern Gulf of Mexico, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol.78, issue.21, pp.7611-7618, 2012.
DOI : 10.1128/AEM.01646-12

G. Terzi, O. Buyuktan?r, and N. Yurdusev, isolates in fish and mussels from Middle Black Sea Coast of Turkey, Letters in Applied Microbiology, vol.125, issue.6, pp.757-763, 2009.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1472-765X.2009.02736.x

W. T. Yu, K. J. Jong, Y. R. Lin, S. Tsai, Y. H. Tey et al., Prevalence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in oyster and clam culturing environments in Taiwan, International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol.160, issue.3, pp.185-192, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2012.11.002