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The Different Modes of Resistance to AIDS: Lessons from HIV/SIV Controllers and SIV Natural Hosts.

Abstract : Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in humans does not always lead to AIDS. Rare HIV-1-infected individuals known as HIV controllers do not show signs of disease progression in the long term and spontaneously control HIV replication to very low levels in the absence of therapy. Simian species that are naturally infected by Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in the wild provide an apparently radically different model of resistance to AIDS, as the plasma viral load remains persistently high in these species without obvious pathogenic consequences. Infections in HIV controllers and SIV natural hosts differ in several major points, such as the strength and avidity of the antiviral T-cell response, which are remarkably high in controllers. However, close examination of the human and simian models also reveals common threads, highlighting key elements involved in resisting AIDS: these include contained levels of chronic immune activation, a downregulation of the interferon response, a low viral load in lymph nodes, and a relative protection from infection of certain CD4+ T-cell subsets, including central memory cells and possibly follicular helper T cells. Studies of nonpathogenic HIV and SIV infections thus point to the importance of protecting the lymphoid environment from massive infection to avoid the triggering of a deleterious chronic immune activation, a notion that may inform the development of immunotherapeutic and vaccine approaches against HIV.
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Submitted on : Monday, December 8, 2014 - 11:42:34 AM
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Lisa A Chakrabarti. The Different Modes of Resistance to AIDS: Lessons from HIV/SIV Controllers and SIV Natural Hosts.. Aftab Ansari and Guido Silvestri. Natural Hosts of SIV: Implications in AIDS, Elsevier, pp.287-352, 2014, 9780124047341. ⟨10.1016/B978-0-12-404734-1.00015-2⟩. ⟨pasteur-01092064⟩



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