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Genome analysis of a major urban malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles stephensi.

Xiaofang Jiang 1, 2 Ashley Peery 3 A Hall 1, 2 Atashi Sharma 3 Xiao-Guang Chen 4 Robert M Waterhouse 5, 6, 7, 8 Aleksey Komissarov 9, 10 Michelle M Riehl 11 Yogesh Shouche 12 Maria V Sharakhova 3 Dan Lawson 13 Nazzy Pakpour 14 Peter Arensburger 15 Victoria L M Davidson 16 Karin Eiglmeier 17 Scott Emrich 18 Phillip George 3 Ryan C Kennedy 19 Shrinivasrao P Mane 20 Gareth Maslen 12 Chioma Oringanje 21 Yumin Qi 2 Robert Settlage 22 Marta Tojo 21 Jose M C Tubio 23 Maria F Unger 24 Bo Wang 14 Kenneth D Vernick 17 Jose M C Ribeiro 25 Anthony A James 26 Kristin Michel 17 Michael A Riehle 21 Shirley Luckhart 14 Igor V Sharakhov 1, 3 Zhijian Tu 1, 2 
Abstract : Background Anopheles stephensi is the key vector of malaria throughout the Indian subcontinent and Middle East and an emerging model for molecular and genetic studies of mosquito-parasite interactions. The type form of the species is responsible for the majority of urban malaria transmission across its range.ResultsHere, we report the genome sequence and annotation of the Indian strain of the type form of An. stephensi. The 221 Mb genome assembly represents more than 92% of the entire genome and was produced using a combination of 454, Illumina, and PacBio sequencing. Physical mapping assigned 62% of the genome onto chromosomes, enabling chromosome-based analysis. Comparisons between An. stephensi and An. gambiae reveal that the rate of gene order reshuffling on the X chromosome was three times higher than that on the autosomes. An. stephensi has more heterochromatin in pericentric regions but less repetitive DNA in chromosome arms than An. gambiae. We also identify a number of Y-chromosome contigs and BACs. Interspersed repeats constitute 7.1% of the assembled genome while LTR retrotransposons alone comprise more than 49% of the Y contigs. RNA-seq analyses provide new insights into mosquito innate immunity, development, and sexual dimorphism.ConclusionsThe genome analysis described in this manuscript provides a resource and platform for fundamental and translational research into a major urban malaria vector. Chromosome-based investigations provide unique perspectives on Anopheles chromosome evolution. RNA-seq analysis and studies of immunity genes offer new insights into mosquito biology and mosquito-parasite interactions.
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Submitted on : Monday, October 13, 2014 - 5:07:40 PM
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Xiaofang Jiang, Ashley Peery, A Hall, Atashi Sharma, Xiao-Guang Chen, et al.. Genome analysis of a major urban malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles stephensi.. Genome Biology, 2014, 15 (9), pp.459. ⟨10.1186/s13059-014-0459-2⟩. ⟨pasteur-01074253⟩



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