M. E. Burlone and A. Budkowska, Hepatitis C virus cell entry: role of lipoproteins and cellular receptors, J. Gen. Virol, vol.90, pp.1055-1070, 2009.

J. Munch, Semen-derived amyloid fibrils drastically enhance HIV infection, Cell, vol.131, pp.1059-1071, 2007.

Q. Sattentau, Avoiding the void: cell-to-cell spread of human viruses, Nat. Rev. Microbiol, vol.6, pp.815-826, 2008.

W. Mothes, Virus cell-to-cell transmission, J. Virol, vol.84, pp.8360-8368, 2010.

E. Donegan, Transfusion transmission of retroviruses: human T-lymphotropic virus types I and II compared with human immunodeficiency virus type 1, Transfusion (Paris), vol.34, pp.478-483, 1994.

K. S. Jones, Cell-free HTLV-1 infects dendritic cells leading to transmission and transformation of CD4(+) T cells, Nat. Med, vol.14, pp.429-436, 2008.

P. Chen, Predominant mode of human immunodeficiency virus transfer between T cells is mediated by sustained Env-dependent neutralization-resistant virological synapses, J. Virol, vol.81, pp.12582-12595, 2007.

D. Mazurov, Quantitative comparison of HTLV-1 and HIV-1 cell-to-cell infection with new replication dependent vectors, PLoS Pathog, vol.6, p.1000788, 2010.

R. Pearce-pratt, Role of the cytoskeleton in cell-to-cell transmission of human immunodeficiency virus, J. Virol, vol.68, pp.2898-2905, 1994.

V. R. Zacharopoulos, Lymphocyte-facilitated infection of epithelia by human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I, J. Virol, vol.66, pp.4601-4605, 1992.

T. Igakura, Spread of HTLV-I between lymphocytes by virus-induced polarization of the cytoskeleton, Science, vol.299, pp.1713-1716, 2003.

D. Derse and G. Heidecker, Virology. Forced entry-or does HTLV-I have the key?, Science, vol.299, pp.1670-1671, 2003.

C. Jolly and Q. J. Sattentau, Retroviral spread by induction of virological synapses, Traffic, vol.5, pp.643-650, 2004.

M. Nejmeddine, Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 Tax protein triggers microtubule reorientation in the virological synapse, J. Biol. Chem, vol.280, pp.29653-29660, 2005.

C. Journo, HTLV gene regulation: because size matters, transcription is not enough, Future Microbiol, vol.4, pp.425-440, 2009.

N. M. Sherer, Retroviruses can establish filopodial bridges for efficient cell-to-cell transmission, Nat. Cell Biol, vol.9, pp.310-315, 2007.

S. Sowinski, Membrane nanotubes physically connect T cells over long distances presenting a novel route for HIV-1 transmission, Nat. Cell Biol, vol.10, pp.211-219, 2008.

N. Van-prooyen, Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 p8 protein increases cellular conduits and virus transmission, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A, vol.107, pp.20738-20743, 2010.

D. Rudnicka, Simultaneous cell-to-cell transmission of human immunodeficiency virus to multiple targets through polysynapses, J. Virol, vol.83, pp.6234-6246, 2009.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-00458065

E. Majorovits, Human T-lymphotropic virus-1 visualized at the virological synapse by electron tomography, PLoS ONE, vol.3, p.2251, 2008.

C. Jolly, HIV-1 cell to cell transfer across an Env-induced, actin-dependent synapse, J. Exp. Med, vol.199, pp.283-293, 2004.

W. Hubner, Quantitative 3D video microscopy of HIV transfer across T cell virological synapses, Science, vol.323, pp.1743-1747, 2009.

P. Gupta, Cell-to-cell transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in the presence of azidothymidine and neutralizing antibody, J. Virol, vol.63, pp.2361-2365, 1989.

N. Martin, Virological synapse-mediated spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 between T cells is sensitive to entry inhibition, J. Virol, vol.84, pp.3516-3527, 2010.

B. D. Lindenbach, Cell culture-grown hepatitis C virus is infectious in vivo and can be recultured in vitro, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A, vol.103, pp.3805-3809, 2006.

A. M. Pais-correia, Biofilm-like extracellular viral assemblies mediate HTLV-1 cell-to-cell transmission at virological synapses, Nat. Med, vol.16, pp.83-89, 2010.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-00460124

K. S. Jones and P. L. Green, Cloaked virus slips between cells, Nat. Med, vol.16, pp.25-27, 2010.

J. W. Costerton, Bacterial biofilms in nature and disease, Annu. Rev. Microbiol, vol.41, pp.435-464, 1987.

L. Hall-stoodley, Bacterial biofilms: from the natural environment to infectious diseases, Nat. Rev. Microbiol, vol.2, pp.95-108, 2004.

S. S. Branda, Biofilms: the matrix revisited, Trends Microbiol, vol.13, pp.20-26, 2005.

H. C. Flemming and J. Wingender, The biofilm matrix, Nat. Rev. Microbiol, vol.8, pp.623-633, 2010.

D. G. Davies, The involvement of cell-to-cell signals in the development of a bacterial biofilm, Science, vol.280, pp.295-298, 1998.

C. D. Nadell, The sociobiology of biofilms, FEMS Microbiol. Rev, vol.33, pp.206-224, 2009.

P. S. Stewart and M. J. Franklin, Physiological heterogeneity in biofilms, Nat. Rev. Microbiol, vol.6, pp.199-210, 2008.

C. J. Nobile and A. P. Mitchell, Microbial biofilms: e pluribus unum, vol.17, pp.349-353, 2007.

J. R. Blankenship and A. P. Mitchell, How to build a biofilm: a fungal perspective, Curr. Opin. Microbiol, vol.9, pp.588-594, 2006.

T. R. Neu and J. R. Lawrence, Lectin-binding analysis in biofilm systems, Methods Enzymol, vol.310, pp.145-152, 1999.

A. P. Moran, Relevance of fucosylation and Lewis antigen expression in the bacterial gastroduodenal pathogen Helicobacter pylori, Carbohydr. Res, vol.343, pp.1952-1965, 2008.

J. M. Coffin, HIV viral dynamics, AIDS, vol.10, pp.75-84, 1996.

J. M. Coffin, , 1997.

J. W. Costerton, Bacterial biofilms: a common cause of persistent infections, Science, vol.284, pp.1318-1322, 1999.

K. G. Hadlock, The humoral immune response to human Tcell lymphotropic virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein gp46 is directed primarily against conformational epitopes, J. Virol, vol.73, pp.1205-1212, 1999.

D. K. Hsu, Human T lymphotropic virus-I infection of human T lymphocytes induces expression of the beta-galactosidebinding lectin, galectin-3, Am. J. Pathol, vol.148, pp.1661-1670, 1996.

S. Gauthier, Induction of galectin-1 expression by HTLV-I Tax and its impact on HTLV-I infectivity, Retrovirology, vol.5, p.105, 2008.

E. Munoz, Stimulation of alpha 1 (I) procollagen gene expression in NIH-3T3 cells by the human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax gene, J. Clin. Invest, vol.96, pp.2413-2420, 1995.

M. Kazanji, Lymphoid organs as a major reservoir for human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 in experimentally infected squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus): provirus expression, persistence, and humoral and cellular immune responses, J. Virol, vol.74, pp.4860-4867, 2000.

L. Bonifait, Fibrinogen induces biofilm formation by Streptococcus suis and enhances its antibiotic resistance, Appl. Environ. Microbiol, vol.74, pp.4969-4972, 2008.

M. Fowler, Galectin-3 binds to Helicobacter pylori Oantigen: it is upregulated and rapidly secreted by gastric epithelial cells in response to H. pylori adhesion, Cell. Microbiol, vol.8, pp.44-54, 2006.

A. Scharfman, Recognition of Lewis x derivatives present on mucins by flagellar components of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Infect. Immun, vol.69, pp.5243-5248, 2001.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00149469

, Have your say Would you like to respond to any of the issues raised in this month's TiM? Please contact the Editor (etj.tim@elsevier.com) with a summary outlining what will be discussed in your letter and why the suggested topic would be timely

, Opinion Trends in Microbiology, vol.19, issue.6, 2011.